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Michael Helbock Rocco Nguyen Preston Pallante Chemical Car Project

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Reaction Chemistry 3 lemons in series as well as 3 lemons in parallel Produced over 3 and a half volts but only 0.8 amps. The motor needed at least 1 amp to run.

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Reaction Chemistry This demonstrates the Carbon Dioxide gas propelling the propel bottle which was strapped to the car, in the form of thrust.

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Reaction Chemistry 1. Double Replacement Reaction 2NaHCO 3 +H 2 SO 4 → 2H 2 O+Na 2 SO 4 +2CO 2 Builds Carbon Dioxide pressure in propel bottle used to produce thrust as the gas is released. 2. Oxidation Reduction Reaction Anode- Zinc is oxidized, which gives off two Zn → Zn 2+ +2e - Cathode- Copper, where Hydrogen from the lemon acid is reduced to form molecular Hydrogen. 2H + +2e - → H 2 Produces electricity, which can be used to power a small motor.

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Test Results

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Balanced Equation 2NaHCO 3 +H 2 SO 4 2CO 2 + 2H 2 O + Na 2 SO 4 The Limiting Reactant Using Density to Find Grams of H 2 SO 4 Volume H 2 SO 4 = 7 mL Density H 2 SO 4 = 1.84 Mass = (1.84)(7 ml) = 12.8 grams H 2 SO 4 Amount of CO 2 Produced Using Ideal Gas Law to determine how much ATP produced in a 700 mL (0.7L) pv = nRT R = Gas 20°C (293K) R= p = Example of Calculation

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Conclusion The car was composed of 4 wheels across a long but narrow wheel base. Our goal was to find something light, yet stable. After a couple of experiments, this design seemed to produce successful results. The Propel bottle was strapped completely level but sideways to the car with a rubber band. We used the Double Replacement reaction of Sulfuric Acid and Baking Soda to produce Carbon Dioxide. This product then built up in the 700 ml propel bottle to nearly 4 atmospheres. This was too much pressure as our first run went nearly 48 feet. We then toned town the pressure to 3.3 atmospheres and seemed to find our mark as we went 40 inches over 25 feet. The next run was 50 inches short of 25 feet. Earlier in the experiment we decided to try producing electricity from lemons. We used Zinc as our Anode and Copper as our Cathode. It was worth a shot but couldn’t quite come up successful as it only produced 3.5 volts and 0.8 amps. This was just short of the 1 amp, which was needed to power the motor. We hooked 3 lemons up in series along with 3 more lemons in parallel off of the lemons in series. The 4 hours we spent on the Lemon experiment as frustrating but it taught us a lot.

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Re-Design Ideas Due to the large portion of time spent trying to make a successful Lemon powered car, we were not able to run enough practice trials to get precise reactant measurements. If the experiment could be ran again, more time would be put into improving the precision of the car. This means more practice trials would be ran in order to collect enough data to come up with better measurements, to yield the 25 foot goal. Also, the valve, which was integrated into the lid, seemed to be ineffective. Sometimes pressure would leak out when the person holding it was trying to set it on the starting line. Using something such as a material that would break under a certain amount of pressure would have been a good consideration.

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