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CHAPTER 11 Unicellular Eukaryotes: Protozoan Groups.

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1 CHAPTER 11 Unicellular Eukaryotes: Protozoan Groups


3 E MERGENCE OF E UKARYOTES Cellular Symbiosis First evidence of life Dates to 3.5 billion years ago First cells were bacteria-like Origin of complex eukaryote cells Most likely symbiosis among prokaryotic cells Changed the prokaryote that was “eaten” into an organelle: Primary endosymbiosis Aerobic bacteria “eaten” by bacteria May have become mitochondria found in most modern eukaryotic cells “Eaten” photosynthetic bacteria evolved into chloroplasts Descendants in green algae lineage gave rise to multicellular plants

4 E MERGENCE OF E UKARYOTES Protozoa Lack a cell wall Have at least one motile stage in life cycle Motile- moving Most ingest (eat) their food Other groups originated by Secondary endosymbiosis One eukaryotic cell “ate” another eukaryotic cell Latter became transformed into an organelle

5 E MERGENCE OF E UKARYOTES Protozoans Carry on all life activities within a single cell Can survive only within narrow environmental ranges Very important ecologically At least 10,000 species of protozoa are symbiotic in or on other plants or animals Relationships may be mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic


7 H OW DO WE DEFINE PROTOZOAN GROUPS ? Heterotrophic protozoa obtain organic molecules synthesized by other organisms Phagotrophs (holozoic feeders) Feed on visible particles Osmotrophs (saprozoic feeder) Feed on soluble food Mode of nutrition employed by unicellular organisms Often variable and opportunistic


9 H OW DO WE DEFINE PROTOZOAN GROUPS ? Mode of locomotion Used in the past to distinguish three of the four classes of the phylum Protozoa Society of Protozoologists (1980) published a new classification with seven separate phyla Molecular analyses have given scientists new insight into protozoan relationships. There may be 250,000 protozoan species

10 F ORM AND F UNCTION Locomotion Cilia and flagella Both called undulipodia Cilia : Propel water parallel to the cell surface Flagella : Propel water parallel to the flagellum axis

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13 F ORM AND F UNCTION Pseudopodia Primary means of locomotion in Sarcodina, many flagellates and ameboid cells of many invertebrates and vertebrates Lobopodia Large blunt extensions of the cell body Contains both endoplasm and ectoplasm Limax Form Whole body moves rather than sending out arms Filopodia Thin extensions containing only ectoplasm

14 F ORM AND F UNCTION How Pseudopodia Work Endoplasm Contains nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles Ectoplasm More transparent (hyaline) Contains bases of cilia or flagella Often more rigid Appears granular

15 F ORM AND F UNCTION A lobopodium forms by extending ectoplasm (hyaline cap) Endoplasm flows into hyaline cap

16 F ORM AND F UNCTION Functional Components of Protozoan Cells Nucleus Membrane bound organelle Contains DNA in the form of chromosomes Chromatin often clumps leaving clear areas Nucleoli are often present

17 F ORM AND F UNCTION Nutrition Holozoic nutrition implies phagocytosis In folding of cell membrane surrounds food particle Then pinches off Food particle contained in intracellular vesicle Food vacuole (phagosome) Lysosomes fuse (binds) with phagosome and release enzymes

18 F ORM AND F UNCTION Digested products absorbed across vacuole membrane Undigestible material released to outside by exocytosis

19 F ORM AND F UNCTION Excretion and Osmoregulation Excretion of metabolic wastes is by diffusion Primary end product of nitrogen metabolism Ammonia Contractile vacuoles fill and empty to maintain osmotic balance Water enters by osmosis


21 F ORM AND F UNCTION Reproduction Asexual Processes Fission Produces more individuals than other forms of reproduction Binary fission is most common Two identical individuals produced Budding Occurs when a small progeny cell (bud) pinches off from parent cell Bud grows to adult size



24 F ORM AND F UNCTION Multiple fission (schizogony) Cytokinesis (part of mitosis) preceded by several nuclear divisions May individuals formed simultaneously If union of gametes precedes multiple fission Called sporogony

25 F ORM AND F UNCTION All of above accompanied by some form of mitosis Mitosis in protozoa divisions varies from other mitosis Nuclear membrane often persists Centrioles not observed in ciliates

26 F ORM AND F UNCTION Sexual Processes All protozoa reproduce asexually Some exclusively Sexual reproduction also occurs widely among protozoa May precede phases of asexual reproduction Isogametes Gametes look alike Anisogametes Gametes are dissimilar Characteristic of most species

27 F ORM AND F UNCTION Meiosis May occur during or just before gamete formation In other groups, meiosis occurs after fertilization (zygotic meiosis)

28 F ORM AND F UNCTION Fertilization of one gamete by another Syngamy Some sexual phenomena do not involve syngamy Autogamy Gamete nuclei form by meiosis Fuse to form a zygote inside the parent organism Conjugation Gamete nuclei exchanged between paired organisms

29 M AJOR P ROTOZOAN T AXA Phyla Retortamonada and Diplomonads Divided into 2 exclusive clades : Retortamonds and Diplomonads Retortamonds Include commensal and parasitic unicells Lack mitochondria and Golgi bodies Diplomonads Lack mitochondria Mitochondrial genes occur in the cell nucleus Absence of mitochondria may be a secondary change Giardia inhabit the digestive tract of humans, birds, and amphibians


31 M AJOR P ROTOZOAN T AXA Phylum Euglenozoa Generally considered as monophyletic Have a series of longitudinal microtubules Stiffen the cell membrane into a pellicle Two subphylums Subphylum Euglenida Chloroplasts surrounded by a double membrane Secondary endosymbiosis

32 M AJOR P ROTOZOAN T AXA Subphylum Kinetoplasta Have kinetoplastids: round DNA Zooflagellates Lack chromoplasts Holozoic or saprozoic nutrition Most are symbiotic Trypanosoma Important genus of protozoan parasites Some not pathogenic *Affects birds, fish, amphibians, mammals. Can be passed by insects to humans. African sleeping sickness

33 M AJOR P ROTOZOAN T AXA Phylum Ciliophora Ciliates are the most diverse and specialized protozoans Larger than most other protozoa Most free-living, some commensal and parasitic Usually solitaire and motile Most free-living in freshwater or marine habitats

34 Phylum Cilliophora Cilia Arranged in rows Propel food to the cytopharynx Fused cilia (cirri) used in locomotion Most are holozoic

35 M AJOR P ROTOZOAN T AXA Suctorians Ciliates that paralyze their prey and Ingest contents through tube-like tentacles Trichocysts and toxicysts in some Expel long thread-like structures when stimulated Believed to be defensive mechanism

36 Endoparasites Hosts are in many animal phyla Gametes may be flagellated The life cycle usually includes both sexual and asexual stages Invertebrate may be an intermediate host During life cycle Form a spore (oocyst) Infective in the next host Protected by a resistant coat

37 M AJOR P ROTOZOAN T AXA Plasmodium: The Malarial Organism Most important infectious disease of humans Four species infect humans Each produces different clinical symptoms Anopheles mosquitoes carry all forms Female injects the Plasmodium present in her saliva

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