2 CultureShared set of meanings that are lived through material and symbolic practices of everyday life.A particular way of life, such as a set of skilled activities, values, & meanings surrounding a particular type of practiceHabit-Repetitive act of an INDIVIDUALBri goes to Starbucks every morning before school.Custom- Repetitive act of a GROUPMuslims pray five times a day.
3 Cultural Geography Cultural Landscape Cultural Ecology Study of people, material, and symbolic practicesMaterial- artifactsNonmaterial- thoughts, lawsCultural LandscapePHYSICAL imprint a culture makes on the environmentHistorical Geography/Genre de vieCultural EcologyResults of human interaction with the environmentSequent Occupancy
4 Human-Environment Interaction (One of the five themes of Human Geography!) Environmental DeterminismHuman behavior CONTROLLED by environmentPossibilismCounterargument!Environment places limits, but people propel developmentCultural DeterminismEnvironment places NO restrictions on human behavior.Political EcologyExploration of why human culture interacts with the environment the way it does.
5 Culture Trait Culture Complex Culture System Culture Region Fireworks on the Fourth of JulyCulture ComplexAll culture traitsNo two cultures are the same!Culture SystemMany complexes with shared traitsCulture RegionRegions that include places/people with similarities in their culture systemsThe SouthCulture RealmFusing culture regions Latin America
6 Cultural Diffusion Expansion Relocation Migrant Diffusion Spreads outward but remains strong in hearthStimulus: Iced to Sweet teaHierarchical: Hip-hopContagious: DiseaseRelocationActual movement from hearth to new placeMigrant DiffusionInnovation spreads but only last a brief timeBand groupies
7 HearthsAn area where innovations in culture began. They are sources of human civilization. Often developed in places with capacity for innovation (water and arable land).Ancient HearthsMesoamericaNile River ValleyIndus River ValleyHuang River Valley
8 Torsten Hagerstrand Innovations diffuse from hearths in stages Stage 1- Acceptance in place of originEarly adoptersStage 2- Spread rapidly outwardMajority adoptersStage 3- Diffusion slows down and dispersal/saturation reaches maximum level.The late adopters phase
10 Cultural Convergence Cultural Divergence Acculturation Two cultures adopt traits and become more alikeCultural DivergenceTwo culture become more differentAcculturationWeaker culture adopts traits from the stronger one.AssimilationOriginal traits of the weaker culture are completely replacedTransculturationTwo cultures of equal power meet and exchange.
11 Folk Culture Limited to smaller region/group of people Rural community HomogeneousRural communityAnonymous hearthsResistance to changeDiffuses slowly/relocation diffusion
12 Popular Culture Large heterogeneous societies Diffuses rapidly Expansion DiffusionHierarchicalCan threaten local distinctivenessCultural homogeneityGlobalizationWestern Media ImperialismUS, Britain, and Japan dominate mediaEnvironmental ProblemsMDCs
13 Cultural Imperialism Cultural Nationalism Taboo Invasion of a culture with intent to dominateCultural NationalismResistance of a group against cultural imperialism and convergence.TabooRestriction on behavior imposed by social customs
14 Folk Housing Product of cultural traditions and natural conditions Distinctive materials from environmentUS Folk HousingLower Chesapeake-Tidewater styleOne storyMiddle Atlantic-Principle House“I” house, Two stories, gables on sideNew EnglandSaltbox, Two-Chimney, Cape cod, and front gable and wing.