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Organelles Control: *Nucleus (plant and animal) Assembly, Transport, and Storage: *Nucleolus(plant and animal) *Endoplasmic reticulum (plant and animal)

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Presentation on theme: "Organelles Control: *Nucleus (plant and animal) Assembly, Transport, and Storage: *Nucleolus(plant and animal) *Endoplasmic reticulum (plant and animal)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organelles Control: *Nucleus (plant and animal) Assembly, Transport, and Storage: *Nucleolus(plant and animal) *Endoplasmic reticulum (plant and animal) *Ribosomes(plant and animal) *Golgi apparatus (plant and animal) *Vacuoles (plant and animal) -one BIG one in plants; multiple small ones in animals *Lysosomes(plant and animal) Energy transformations: *Chloroplasts(plant only) *mitochondria (plant and animal)

2 Nucleus Contains most of eukaryotic cell’s genetic library (mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA…) Largest organelle Enclosed by nuclear envelope or membrane, which is a double membrane – each of which is a lipid bilayer!!! Nuclear envelope has pores in it Contains inactive DNA – chromatin

3 Nucleolus Prominent structure in non-dividing nucleus Ribosomal RNA and ribosomal subunits are made here

4 Figure 7.9 The nucleus and its envelope

5 Endoplasmic reticulum – “highway system” EXTENSIVE – accounts for more than half the total membrane system in eukaryotic cells Name means “little net within the cytoplasm” Smooth and rough e.r. are actually connected, not distinct, separate sections Job is to transport materials quickly from one place to another in cell

6 Figure 7.11 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

7 Smooth e.r. Functions in synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detoxification of drugs and poisons *Lipids – oils, phospholipids, steroids (sex hormones and adrenal hormones) *Liver cells – glycogen; gets converted to glucose phosphate which cannot leave cell, so e.r. makes enzyme that converts this to glucose *Detox – liver; adds hydroxyl groups to drugs, makes them soluble and able to be flushed out of body

8 Rough e.r. Makes secretory proteins (ex. Insulin made by pancreatic cells) Most are glycoproteins (proteins covalently bound to carbs) Rough e.r. is also a membrane factory – grows by adding proteins and phospholipids; parts can be taken from here and added to other membrane systems using the vesicles for transport

9 Ribosomes “protein factories” Sites of protein synthesis Are made of rRNA and protein Cells with high rates of protein synthesis have MANY ribosomes (human pancreas cell has MILLIONS of ribosomes) Are “free” ribosomes in cytosol that make proteins for the cell that they are INSIDE of Ribosomes that are attached to endoplasmic reticulum (bound) are making proteins for packaging and export OUTSIDE OF CELL

10 Figure 7.10 Ribosomes

11 Golgi apparatus “Gift wrapper/UPS system” Finishes, sorts, ships cell products Golgi will modify products as needed – gives more variety by removing some monomers and substituting others

12 Figure 7.12 The Golgi apparatus

13 Vacuoles “Bank Vaults” or “trash cans” Sites of storage in cells *good things stored – water, minerals, food etc. *bad things stored – broken down cell parts, waste

14 Lysosomes “suicide bags” Membrane-bounded sac of hydrolytic enzymes Different lysosomes break down each of the major classes of macromolecules – proteins, polysaccharides, fats, nucleic acids Work best at pH of 5 Used in autophagy – recycle the cell’s own organic material for use

15 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts “powerhouses” Mitochondria – carry on cellular respiration – sites of energy production in cell (glucose broken down to produce ATP) Chloroplasts – carry on photosynthesis – sites where sunlight, CO2 and water are converted into glucose

16 Figure 7.17 The mitochondrion, site of cellular respiration

17 Figure 7.18 The chloroplast, site of photosynthesis

18 Other structural components of cell… Cytoskeleton Cilia and flagella

19 Cytoskeleton “hay in mud makes bricks” Network of fibers extending into cytoplasm of cell Provides structural support, and aids in cell motility and cell regulation Made up of microtubules (thickest), microtubules (thinnest), and intermediate filaments

20 Cilia and Flagella “hairs and tails” Cilia are short projections from cell body – hair-like flagella are much longer – whip-like Movement may not be for entire organism; may be part of a larger unit – ex. Cilia lining windpipe propel foreign substances out…

21 Organelles do not work alone… Cell is a dynamic interaction of ALL of its parts – literally, the basic unit of life….

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