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Bones of the lower limb Krešimir Tućin 2nd year, 2013/14

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Presentation on theme: "Bones of the lower limb Krešimir Tućin 2nd year, 2013/14"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bones of the lower limb Krešimir Tućin 2nd year, 2013/14
University of Zagreb Medical School Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat

2 Function Carry and support the weight of the entire erect body
Points for muscular attachments Locomotion (standing, walking, jumping, running, kicking, etc.)

3 Components Thigh Knee Leg Foot Femur Patella Tibia (medial)
Fibula (lateral) Foot Tarsals (7) Metatarsals (5) Phalanges (14)

4 Surface anatomy Bony prominences and margins – palpable
Exception: hip joint, neck, and shaft of the femur Anatomical landmarks – define the extent of the leg Superior anterior iliac spine, greater trochanter, medial condyle of tibia, and medial malleolus

5 Posterior side – only tendons palpable
Anterior thigh Patella Femur Condyles Anterior leg bones Tibia Tibial tuberosity Anterior crest Medial surface Medial malleolus Fibula Head Lateral malleolus Posterior side – only tendons palpable

6 Femur Thigh bone Largest, longest, strongest bone in the body!
Receives a lot of stress Courses medially More in women! Articulates with acetabulum proximally hip (“ball and socket”) joint Articulates with tibia and patella distally knee joint lat. acetabulum = vinegar cup


8 Knee Femur, patella, tibia Patella Kneecap Triangular sesamoid bone
Protects knee joint Improves leverage of thigh muscles acting across the knee Contained within patellar ligament

9 Tibia Shin bone Receives weight of body from femur and transmits to foot Second to femur in size and weight Articulates with fibula proximally and distally Articulates with femur and patella proximally

10 Fibula Does NOT bear weight! Muscle attachment Not part of knee joint
Stabilizes ankle joint *ankle joint = tibia, fibula, talus

11 Fractures of the tibia and fibula

12 Foot Function: Parts: Supports the weight of the body
Acts as a lever to propel the body forward Parts: Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges of the foot

13 Tarsals Hind part of the foot 7 short bones Similar to the carpals
Parts: Calcaneus Talus Navicular 3 Cuneiforms Cuboid

14 Metatarsals and phalanges of the foot
Midfoot Similar to metacarpals Phalanges Forefoot 2 in the big toe, 3 in each of the other toes Both long bones

15 Foot arches 3 arches Flat foot Medial Longitudinal Lateral Transverse
Tendons Inferior to foot bones Help support arches of foot Function Support the weight of the body during standing Elastic propulsion during walking Flat foot

16 References Elsevier, Drake et al: Gray's anatomy for students

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