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BONES OF THE LOWER LIMB Krešimir Tućin 2nd year, 2013/14 University of Zagreb Medical School Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat.

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Presentation on theme: "BONES OF THE LOWER LIMB Krešimir Tućin 2nd year, 2013/14 University of Zagreb Medical School Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat."— Presentation transcript:

1 BONES OF THE LOWER LIMB Krešimir Tućin 2nd year, 2013/14 University of Zagreb Medical School Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat

2 Function  Carry and support the weight of the entire erect body  Points for muscular attachments  Locomotion (standing, walking, jumping, running, kicking, etc.)

3 Components  Thigh  Femur  Knee  Patella  Leg  Tibia (medial)  Fibula (lateral)  Foot  Tarsals (7)  Metatarsals (5)  Phalanges (14)

4 Surface anatomy  Bony prominences and margins – palpable  Exception: hip joint, neck, and shaft of the femur  Anatomical landmarks – define the extent of the leg  Superior anterior iliac spine, greater trochanter, medial condyle of tibia, and medial malleolus

5  Anterior thigh  Patella  Femur Condyles  Anterior leg bones  Tibia Tibial tuberosity Anterior crest Medial surface Medial malleolus  Fibula Head Lateral malleolus  Posterior side – only tendons palpable

6 Femur  Thigh bone  Largest, longest, strongest bone in the body!  Receives a lot of stress  Courses medially  More in women!  Articulates with acetabulum proximally hip (“ball and socket”) joint  Articulates with tibia and patella distally knee joint  lat. acetabulum = vinegar cup

7

8 Knee  Femur, patella, tibia  Patella  Kneecap  Triangular sesamoid bone  Protects knee joint  Improves leverage of thigh muscles acting across the knee  Contained within patellar ligament

9 Tibia  Shin bone  Receives weight of body from femur and transmits to foot  Second to femur in size and weight  Articulates with fibula proximally and distally  Articulates with femur and patella proximally

10 Fibula  Does NOT bear weight!  Muscle attachment  Not part of knee joint  Stabilizes ankle joint *ankle joint = tibia, fibula, talus

11 Fractures of the tibia and fibula

12 Foot  Function:  Supports the weight of the body  Acts as a lever to propel the body forward  Parts:  Tarsals  Metatarsals  Phalanges of the foot

13 Tarsals  Hind part of the foot  7 short bones  Similar to the carpals  Parts:  Calcaneus  Talus  Navicular  3 Cuneiforms  Cuboid

14 Metatarsals and phalanges of the foot  Metatarsals  Midfoot  Similar to metacarpals  Phalanges  Forefoot  2 in the big toe, 3 in each of the other toes  Both long bones

15 Foot arches  3 arches  Medial Longitudinal  Lateral  Transverse  Tendons Inferior to foot bones Help support arches of foot  Function Support the weight of the body during standing Elastic propulsion during walking  Flat foot

16 References  en.wikipedia.org    faculty.ccri.edu  Elsevier, Drake et al: Gray's anatomy for students


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