Presentation on theme: "Cells and organization of living systems"— Presentation transcript:
1Cells and organization of living systems TAKS- Living SystemsCells and organization of living systems
2Organization of living systems All matter made of atomsAtoms organized into moleculesMolecules organized into cells (Living things are made of cells)Cells organized into tissuesTissues organized into organsOrgans organized into organ systemsOrgan systems organized into organisms
4Two types of cells Prokaryotic cells- Bacteria ONLY!!! Eukaryotic cells-All other living cells.
5Prokaryotic CellsLack nucleus and most other organelles (structure within cell – performs specific function)Include Eubacteria and ArchaebacteriaArchaebacteria – ancient bacteriaEubacteria – true bacteriaGood bacteria and pathogenic bacteria
6Eukaryotic cellsHave nucleus and other organelles Ex. Nuclear Membrane and Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles. FYI: Mitochondria have their own nuclei and can reproduce like in muscle tissue.
7Organelles in Eukaryotic cells Nucleus – contains DNA; command center of cellMitochondria – found in all eukaryotes – breaks down food molecules (i.e. – glucose) to release energy (cellular respiration) Equation for cellular respiration: C6 H12O O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPRibosomes – where proteins are madeEndoplasmic reticulum – path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to anotherGolgi apparatus – processes and packages substances produced by the cell
8Lysosome – digests molecules, old organelles, and foreign substances Cilia and flagella – propel cells through the environment; move materials over cell surfaceVacuole – storage of water, waste, and/or enzymesMicrofilaments and microtubules – forms cytoskeleton of cell for support, movement, and division of cellsChloroplast – found in cells of plants and some protists – use energy in sunlight to make the sugar glucose (photosynthesis). Glucose fuels all life’s processes (plant and animal).Cell wall – (plants) supports/protects cell
9Plant and Animal cells-Cell Organelle Game in Student Packet
10Rules:1. You will work in teams of 4 and place the organelle cut outs in the appropriate plant and animal cell model. We will begin in 5 minutes.2. You will place the organelle in the model(s) and quickly write the function to the side of your labels in pencil.3. Each organelle is worth 5 points.4. Having finished the race have another team verify you results.5. Give your total score for each model on your score card.
11End of Day 1: Turn in your score cards for Cell Review.
13Ways to maintain homeostasis Passive transport – no ATP usedDiffusionOsmosisFacilitated diffusionCarrier proteinsIon channelsActive transport – ATP usedCell membrane pumps (sodium-potassium)Endocytosisexocytosis
14InterdependenceIn multicellular organisms cells work together in organs and organ systems to help one another maintain homeostasis
15Organ SystemsCirculatory – transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and carries wastes away from cellsRespiratory – moves oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the bodyDigestive – breaks down food and absorbs nutrientsNervous – detects changes outside and inside your body and controls the way your body responds to these changesSkeletal – movement, protection, shape, support, storage of minerals and produces blood cells
16Muscular – movement, posture, and production of heat Endocrine – produces chemical messengers called hormones; some hormones help to maintain homeostasis while others control development and growthIntegumentary – forms protective barrier around body, prevents water loss, controls body temperature, and gathers information about your surroundingsImmune – protects body from infection
17Lymphatic – takes fluid from the spaces between cells and returns it to the circulatory system; filters bacteria and other microorganisms from this fluidReproductive – males – sperm production; females – eggsExcretory – removes wastes from the body and helps maintain homeostasis