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Animation of spaceship in space Space Exploration In this presentation you will: investigate the history and future of space exploration, including space.

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Presentation on theme: "Animation of spaceship in space Space Exploration In this presentation you will: investigate the history and future of space exploration, including space."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animation of spaceship in space Space Exploration In this presentation you will: investigate the history and future of space exploration, including space transportation Next >

2 Man has always aspired to explore the unexplored, and to understand what is not understood. Introduction The Earth, our Sun, our Solar System, even our galaxy, is tiny in comparison to the known universe. Space has therefore been a fascination to explorers and scientists alike for many years. Paul Haslam

3 Very Early Space Exploration Next > Before space travel was possible, space exploration was performed by studying the sky with the naked eye. Ancient scholars developed an understanding of the stars, the planets and their movements based on observation.

4 Very Early Space Exploration With the development of the telescope in the early 17 th century, astronomical observations became more detailed and accurate. However, it was the dramatic technological advances of the second half of the 20 th century that enabled us to substantially increase our knowledge of space. Next >

5 Early Rockets Next > The principle of the rocket has been around for a long time. The earliest were used as weapons, hundreds of years ago.

6 Early Rockets Next > A rocket produces movement by burning fuel. This shoots hot gases out one end, sending the rocket in the other direction. Since there is no air in space, rockets must have their own oxygen source. This allows them to be used for space travel. In order for burning to take place, there must be fuel and oxygen. Direction of travel Exhaust gases Courtesy NASA

7 First Rockets In Space Next > The first rocket that was able to fly high enough to be considered ‘in space’ was the V-2 missile. The technology was used for rockets in early space exploration. This was a weapon developed by German scientists in the Second World War.

8 First Rocket In Orbit Next > In 1957, the Soviet Union launched a rocket that sent the first man-made satellite into orbit around the Earth. The satellite, named Sputnik 1, orbited for 57 days before burning up upon re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere.

9 First Life In Space Next > The next question was; could a human travel into space? Some scientists had believed that life would not be able to function during space travel. It was decided that an animal would be sent first to ensure the safety of the journey.

10 Next > Just a few weeks after the successful launch of Sputnik 1, the Soviet Union launched another satellite, Sputnik had a passenger for its journey; a dog named Laika. First Life In Space

11 Next > Unlike Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2 had to support life, therefore it needed: Unfortunately, Laika did not survive the trip. However she has her place in history as the first living thing to orbit the Earth. First Life In Space An oxygen generator for air A fan to keep Laika cool A harness to keep her safe Enough food for the trip A way of collecting waste

12 How was Sputnik 1 upgraded to Sputnik 2 in order to sustain life? Question 1 A) An oxygen generator was installed B) A fan was installed C) A safety harness was fitted D) All of the above Next >

13 How was Sputnik 1 upgraded to Sputnik 2 in order to sustain life? Question 1 A) An oxygen generator was installed B) A fan was installed C) A safety harness was fitted D) All of the above Next >

14 First Human In Space Next > On April , Russian astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space, orbiting the Earth once. Gagarin traveled in a spacecraft named Vostok 1.1. It was unknown how humans would react to being in space, so the flight was controlled from the ground.

15 Yuri’s Trip Next > Upon re-entry into the Earth’s Atmosphere, Gagarin ejected from the craft and parachuted safely to the ground. Once the spacecraft had been successfully launched, the rocket part dropped off the craft, and returned to Earth. Only the capsule containing Gagarin was sent into orbit.

16 Race To The Moon Next > In 1969, American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the Moon, proclaiming: The rocket propelled spacecraft that made the journey to the Moon was Apollo 11, as part of NASA’s Apollo project. “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” Courtesy NASA

17 What did the Sputnik and Apollo spacecraft have in common? Question 2 A) They both had the purpose of orbiting the Earth. B) They both used rockets to propel the craft. C) They both had human passengers. D) They both traveled to the Moon. Next >

18 What did the Sputnik and Apollo spacecraft have in common? Question 2 A) They both had the purpose of orbiting the Earth. B) They both used rockets to propel the craft. C) They both had human passengers. D) They both traveled to the Moon. Next >

19 Mars Landing? Next > In 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama made the following statement: “By the mid-2030s, I believe we can send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth. A landing on Mars will follow.” Courtesy NASA

20 The distance between Mars and Earth is about 55 million kilometers. Using current technology, it is estimated that a journey of that distance and back would take over a year. Mars Landing? The biggest obstacle to space travel is the extremely large distances. Next > Courtesy NASA

21 New Spacecraft Technology Next > New technologies that have been researched include: Solar sails Nuclear power Ion thrusters VASIMR technology (variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket) Scientists are looking to improve spacecraft technology. Could a rocket be made that does not require the burning of fuel? NASA

22 Ion Thrusters Next > A small acceleration is produced but for a very long time. Ion thrusters use electrical energy to create thrust. This removes the need for burning fuel. NASA Ion thruster power is used in missions that do not require much power… …or missions that are going to take a long time.

23 Which of the following missions would be suitable to be powered by ion thrusters? Question 3 A) A research mission to the Moon B) A repair mission on one of Earth’s satellites C) A deep space exploration mission D) All of the above Next >

24 Which of the following missions would be suitable to be powered by ion thrusters? Question 3 A) A research mission to the Moon B) A repair mission on one of Earth’s satellites C) A deep space exploration mission D) All of the above Next >

25 The International Space Station Next > The ISS is a research facility built in a low Earth orbit. It is the largest man-made satellite ever built, and can be seen from Earth with the naked eye. Scientists use the station to conduct experiments in an environment different to that of Earth. Courtesy NASA

26 Space Exploration Next > Today, space exploration is mainly carried out using powerful telescopes, probes and satellites. A space telescope is a telescope that orbits the Earth above the atmosphere. Images seen through telescopes on Earth are blurred by the Earth’s atmosphere. The Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, has become one of the most important tools used in astronomy. Courtesy NASA Space telescopes are able to capture clearer images.

27 Space Exploration Next > Probes are robotic spacecraft sent into space to send back data and images. Probes are able to stay in space much longer than humans. The Voyager 1 probe was launched in 1977 and is still traveling through space. This means that research can be conducted on planets and moons unsuitable for human exploration. Courtesy NASA

28 Traveling to the Stars Next > Our nearest star system is over 4 light years away. This means that it takes light 4 years to travel this distance. Time constraints and expense are the main drawbacks of interstellar travel. So while it is technically possible, it is not likely to happen in the near future. Voyager 1 is traveling at 62,000 km/hr. At this speed it would take 17,000 years to reach the nearest star.

29 Question 4 If light travels at 300,000,000 meters every second, and takes 4 years to travel to the nearest star, how long would it take in years to drive there, if you were traveling at 30 meters a second? Next > A) 400 years B) 4,000 years C) 400,000 years D) 40,000,000 years

30 Question 4 If light travels at 300,000,000 meters every second, and takes 4 years to travel to the nearest star, how long would it take in years to drive there, if you were traveling at 30 meters a second? Next > A) 400 years B) 4,000 years C) 400,000 years D) 40,000,000 years

31 Summary In this presentation you have seen: End > a history and the future of space exploration, including space transportation


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