Presentation on theme: "The Cell And all its parts!. The cell The basic unit of structure and function in all living things."— Presentation transcript:
The Cell And all its parts!
The cell The basic unit of structure and function in all living things.
The average cell is between 2 and 200µm (micrometers). To give you an idea of how big a micrometer is, the thickness of a strand of human hair ranges from 50 to 200 micrometers. Dark hair is usually thicker than blonde hair. The smallest particle that can be seen by the human eye is about 10 micrometers. The eyepiece of your microscope has a special tool to measure micrometers. Cells Alive Cells Alive
Entering (and exiting) the cell CELL WALL A stiff wall that surrounds the cell membrane, giving the cell a rigid boxlike shape Function: protection & support This structure is found in plant & bacteria cells CELL MEMBRANE Forms the outside boundary that separates the cell from its environment Function: controls what comes in and out of the cell
Cell Wall/ Cell Membrane
Nucleus Acts as the “brain” of the cell or the control center Directs all of the cell’s activities Where DNA is found
Nucleus Cells without a nucleus: prokaryotes Cells with a nucleus: eukaryotes ___________________________
Nucleus The nucleus of the cell contains the genetic information (DNA)
Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins
Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics
Cytoplasm A gel-like fluid found throughout the entire cell wherein the organelles are found. It is constantly moving so the cell does not need to propel itself.
Mitochondria The “powerhouse” of the cell Produces energy for the cell
Ribosomes –“Factories” that produce protein
Endoplasmic Reticulum –Carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another
Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface
Endoplasmic Reticulum & Ribosomes
Golgi Bodies The cell’s “mailroom” Receives proteins and other materials from the ER, packages them and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
VACUOLES Storage area of the cell Stores food and water Plants have one large vacuole for water Some animal cells have them & others do not
Lysosomes Cell’s cleanup crew Breaks down old cell parts and releases the substances so they can be used again.
Chloroplasts Capture energy from the sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell Found only in the plant cell
Eukaryotes Nucleus has a permeable membrane surrounding it Nucleus contains the organism’s genetic material (DNA) Most organelles also have a membrane around them Mostly eukaryotic kingdoms are multicellular
Plant CellsAnimal Cells Larger vacuoles Chloroplast Cell wall Cells have definite shape Smaller vacuoles, some have no vacuoles No cell wall and no chloroplast More lysosomes More mitochondria
Prokaryotes Have no nucleus (lack a nucleus) Have only ribosomes, cytoplasm, and genetic material (DNA or RNA) Genetic material floats freely in the cytoplasm (No nucleus) Cell Wall and cell membrane ALL unicellular Bacteria Kingdoms ONLY