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 Take in Food  Break down the food  Absorb the digested molecules  Provides Nutirents.

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Presentation on theme: " Take in Food  Break down the food  Absorb the digested molecules  Provides Nutirents."— Presentation transcript:


2  Take in Food  Break down the food  Absorb the digested molecules  Provides Nutirents

3  Four Tunics  mucosa  submucosa  muscularis  serosa

4  The peritoneum is a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the organs  Mesenteries are double layers of peritoneum that extend from the body wall to the many organs  Retroperitoneal organs are behind the peritoneum

5  Lips and cheek muscles involved in mastication  The tongue muscle is involved in speech, mastication and swallowing  32 permanent teeth for chewing  Hard and soft palate  Salivary glands produce serous and mucous secretions

6  32  Incisors, canines, premolars and molars  Each tooth is made of a crown, neck and root  Cut, tear and crush the food

7  Exocrine NAMES  Parotid  Submandibular  Sublingual  secrete Amylase which digests starches and Mucin which provides lubrication

8  muscle that will push food from the oral cavity into the pharynx


10  Nasopharynx  Oropharynx – only site of food entry  Laryngophaynx  Once food is pushed into the oropharynx, the soft palate closes the nasopharynx and the epiglottis closes the laryngopharynx. The food is then moved into the esophagus

11  Long tube that is located between the pharynx and the stomach  Once food is pushed into the esophagus waves of constricitons of the esophageal muscles called Peristalsis moves the food down the esophagus to the stomach


13  The stomach begins where the esophagus ends and ends where the first part of the small intestines begins  Its opening at the esophagus is called the cardia  Its opening at the duodenum is called the pylorus  The wall is made up of three muscle layers: longitudinal, circular and oblique

14  Mucus-protects the stomach lining  Hydrochloric Acid- kills microorganisms and activates pepsin  Pepsin- starts protein digestion  Intrinsic Factor- aids in vitamin B12 absorption  Gastrin-helps regulate stomach secretions


16  Cephalic Phase  Gastric Phase  Intestinal Phase

17  Mixing waves mix the stomach contents with the stomach secretions and form a substance called Chyme  Peristalsis moves the chyme from the stomach into the duodenum( first part of the small intestine)

18  Divided in to three parts : Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Along the surface are circular folds, villi, and microvilli which increase the surface area for the absorption of food Most of all nutrient absorption from food occurs along the duodenum and jejunum

19  Mucus secreted from duodenal glands  Multitude of enzymes that aid in digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats  Stimulated by tactile irritation, vagal nerve stimulation and secretion

20  Segmental Contractions- occur over short distances and mix intestinal contents  Peristaltic Contractions- occur the length of the intestine and propel chyme through the intestine


22  The colon is divided into 4 parts ascending transverse descending sigmoid The colon begins where the ileum (last part of small intestine begins). The Cecum forms a blind sac at the end of the junction of the small and large intestine The Appendix forms a blind sac off the cecum

23  Absorbs water  Converts Chyme to Feces  Eliminates Feces Trough the process of Defecation note: it takes longer for the material to move through the large intestine than the small intestine. Mass movements occur 3-4 times a day

24 T h e la r g e in t e sti n e ( o r c ol o n, o r r g e b o w el ) is t h e la st st ru c tu re t o p r o c e ss f o o d, t a ki n g t h e u n di g e sti bl e m a tt er fr o m t h e s m al l in t e sti n e, a b s o r bi n g w a t er fr o m it a n d le a vi n g t h e w a st e p r o d u c t c al le d f e c e s. F e c e s a re e x p el le d fr o m t h e b o d y t hr o u g h t h e re c tu m a n d t h e a n u s.

25  Consists of Four Lobes  Produces a substances called Bile which leaves the liver to enter the duodenum through a system of ducts. The right and left hepatic ducts empty into the common hepatic duct  Bile consists of bile salts that will “emulsify “ fats  The Liver also stores and makes nutrients, makes new molecule, detoxifies molecules and makes blood proteins

26  A small organ on the undersurface of the liver that stores the bile that has been made by the liver.  Extending from the gall bladder is the cystic duct which connects to the hepatic duct to form the common bile duct

27  Located behind the stomach and duodenum  Both an Endocrine and Exocrine gland Endocrine- alpha and beta cells which make glucagon and insulin for control of blood nutrient levels Exocrine – produces bicarbonate and digestive enzymes. Acidic chyme stimulates the release of this bicarbonate which neutralizes acidic chyme. The enzymes are released in response to fatty and amino acids


29  Digestion is the chemical breakdown of organic molecules ( carbohydrates, lipids and fats) into their component parts by various digestive enzymes Absorption – the process by which these components are taken up by the digestive system and transported across the intestinal wall into the blood to be circulated around to the rest of the body tissue s

30  The Rectum is a straight tube at the end of the Large Intestine  The Anal Canal is at the end of the rectum. It is surrounded by an internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle )and an external anal sphincter ( skeletal muscle) which regulate the defecation process

31  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats

32  Digestion is the chemical breakdown of these organic molecules of into their component parts.  After the molecules are digested, these components are then either transported across the intestinal wall or diffuse through the intestinal wall

33  Carbohydrates are made up of chains of sugar ( saccharide) molecules  Mono  Di  Poly

34  Poly saccharides are split by salivary amylase into disaccharides by salivary amylase and then again by pancreatic amylase  Disaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides by disaccharidases on the surface of the intestinal epithelium  Monosaccahrides are absorbed by active transport into the blood and carried by the hepatic portal vein to the liver where glucose is store or used as needed by other tissues

35 Polypeptides, Di -peptides, Amino acids Proteins are split into small polypeptides by the enzymes in the stomach( pepsin) and on the surface of the intestinal epithelium( trypsin) Peptidases on the surface of the intestinal epithelium breakdown polypeptides and di- peptides into amino acids Amino acids are then absorbed intestinal cells by active transport under the influence of growth hormone and insulin Once absorbed into the blood they will go to be used as building blocks for new proteins

36  Bile Salts made by liver  Pancreatic Lipase breaks down lipids. These break down products of lipids are mixed with the bile salts to form micelles  Micelles come close to the intestinal epithelium and their contents diffuse into intestinal cells where they are packaged and released into the lymphatic system  From the lymphatics lipids are transported to Adipose tissue and the liver to be stored for use as energy when needed

37  99% of the water that enters you intestine is absorbed – Most is absorbed in the large intestine  Minerals ( Calcium, phosphorous, Magnesium, Iron ) are actively transported across the intestinal wall

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