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Chapter 22: The Industrial Revolution

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1 Chapter 22: The Industrial Revolution
“That nation of shop keepers!” Napoleon Bonaparte

2 Discussion question: Great Britain was the leader in the Industrial Revolution. Based on the map, what advantages does Great Britain have that would allow the Industrial Revolution to begin there?

3 How did the Enclosure movement propel the Industrial Revolution?

4 Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain?
Economic Causes 3. Productive English agriculture meant capital available for investment and spending money for ordinary people to purchase goods. 2. The Canal network allowed goods to be shipped to the harbors from inland. 1. The expanding Atlantic economy served as catalyst to meet demands.

5 Political and Social Causes
1. A stable government and an effective central bank. 2. A growing demand for textiles led to the creation of large factories. 3. The putting-out system could not keep up with the demand. 4. Great Britain had the resources needed to fuel the industry (land, labor, and capital)

6 James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny the dramatically increased the output of spinners. It spun cotton and wool into yarn and thread.

7 Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769 that used the movement of water to propel the making of thread. Beginning of the Factory System

8 Edmund Cartwright invented the water powered loom
Edmund Cartwright invented the water powered loom. This invention helped manufacturers make cloth (textiles) at a faster rate. Factory system now complete. This invention allowed one machine make as much cloth as 200 hand weavers in one 12 hour day.

9 The Factory System affects the U.S.
Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin to keep up with demand for cotton in England. Cotton was imported from the south in the U.S and India. The Factory System is when man and machine manufacture goods under one roof.

10 Improvements in power The original steam engine was invented by an Englishman, Thomas Newcomen (1705). James Watt ( ), a Scotsman, improved the steam engine to what was used for the next 100 years.

11 1800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners 1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners 1880
Steel output soars! Coal industry soars! 1800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners 1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners 1880 300 million tons 500, 000 miners 1914 250 million tons 1, 200, 000 miners

12 According to the map, what determined the movement of people in England?

13 Improvements in Transportation
John McAdam improves the structure of roads and develops a drainage system so that the water runs off the roads. (same road system you drive on today)

14 Entrepreneurs Pave the Way!
The Steam Boat (“The Clermont”)- Invented by Robert Fulton, it allowed the transportation of goods to go up and down rivers.

15 The need for faster transportation on land resulted in the development of the steam train in 1830 (“The Rocket”)m This new invention had drastic effects on society The first locomotive was developed by George Stephenson

16 Read primary source document; Development of Industrial Society

17 The Effects of the Locomotive
Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials and finished products. Railroads created hundreds of new jobs for both railroad workers and miners. Railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries. Making travel easier, railroads encouraged country people to take distant city jobs.

18 The Industrial Revolution

19 Changes from the Factory System

20 English Economists Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo supported Smith’s ideas and founded the ideas of Capitalism. Malthus ( ) argued that population tended to increase more rapidly than the food supply. Without wars and epidemic to kill off the extra people, most are destined to be poor. This is the Malthus Theory. Ricardo ( ) believed that a permanent underclass would always be poor in a market economy.

21 Industrialization in continental Europe

22 Disadvantages in trying to develop industrialization
European industrialization gradually grew with some influx; but Great Britain moved twice as fast than any other nation. The technology was secretive in Britain and people could not find a surplus of money to start a business. Continent of Europe was limited to its success do to the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars The gap became so wide that markets were already flooded do to British goods.

23 Advantages continental countries had to promote industry
Continental countries had a rich tradition of adapting and meeting the countries needs Continental countries did not need to develop technology. They could “borrow” it from Britain. Continental countries had strong independent governments that could legislate policy to promote industry in order to catch up with Britain.

24 Belgium is next to industrialize
William Cockerill “borrowed” Britain’s technology to started a cotton spinning business.

25 Governments try to protect their economies
Continental governments began to protect their manufacturers by putting high Tariffs on British goods known as Tariff Protection Continental governments began to contract manufacturers to build railroads, bridges, canals, and industry to try and compete with Britain

26 Friedrich List “The wider the gap between the backward and advanced nations becomes, the more dangerous it is to remain behind… For an agricultural nation is not only poor but also weak, increasingly unable to defend itself and maintain political independence.” National System of Political Economy, 1841 A German journalist that emphasized the need to industrialize. Urged government, banks, corporations to promote industry. List supported economic nationalism; economic competition among European nations.

27 The Middle Class Scots and Quakers jumped early on at factory work to break the bonds with the aristocracy in Britain. Industrialists looked for labor early on towards family and friends do to competition and labor costs. Protestants and Jews did the same in France.

28 Class Consciousness The wives and daughters of industrialists also saw very little opportunity. They became important by being valued by their ladylike gentility. (Focus on the family) The sons of industrialists realized that opportunity was slim. Formal education became more important in order to succeed. Jedediah Strutt (1790)

29 Discussion Question What are some dangers that can be identified in this picture? What else can be identified? Were workers exploited harshly by the new factory owners?

30 The Factory Workers Against the Conditions of Workers Romantic poets such as Dickens, Blake and Wadsworth protested the life of the workers and the pollutions of the land and water Luddites of N. England smashed the machines claiming it was putting them out of work. Friedrich Engels wrote an attack on the middle class in The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844)

31 Some people believed that conditions were improving for the working class
Edwin Chadwick, (gov’t official) argued that the working class conditions were improving because “they could buy more necessities and minor luxuries of life” Ford Maddox Brown: Byron’s Dream

32 So, did the industrialists exploit the workers harshly
So, did the industrialists exploit the workers harshly? Need more evidence! Read accounts in factory interview; and Listening to the past, pg 752 Industrialists then moved their factories to urban locations thanks to the steam engine; due to the labor shortage and limitation of water power. Many industrials went to the foundling homes (orphans) to find the workers needed because of the reluctance of the cottage workers.

33 Families were hired as whole units to make ends meet and to keep with traditional working values.
Parents actually believed that it was alright for their children to work in these conditions and long hours!

34 Some enlightened industrialists did not agree with this even though some parents demanded they work! (Need the money) Robert Owen ( ), an industrialist, decided that it was inhumane to work children under the age of 10. Also shortened their working hours per day to 10.

35 Reform Movement Factory Act of 1833 – Limited the factory work day for children between the ages of 9 and 13 to eight hour days; and teenagers between 14 and 18 to twelve hour days. (Did not improve working conditions) Mines Act of 1842 – prohibited underground work for all women and boys under the age of 10. William Wilberforce spoke out against slavery to Parliament and in 1833 Britain finally abolished it.

36 Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Political Effects Social Effects Economic Effects Countries began to intervene in the economy setting better working standards! (Thank You Enlightenment!) Schools began due to new laws prohibiting children to work. Cities emerged over night that gave way to a whole new set of problems. Growing middle class gave way to hope to a better standard of living. Businesses provided more money for its government, and, over time gave way to a better standard of living.

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