7 Chordates Vertebrate Classes Jawless Fish (lamprey, hagfish) Cartilage Fish (sharks, rays…)Bony Fish (salmon, catfish, goldfish..)Amphibians (frogs, toads…)Reptiles (lizards, turtles…)Birds (sparrows, hawks)Mammals (humans, whales, dogs…)
8 What are Fish? Anything with gills, scales and fins… 1st fish were jawlessDevonian Period - “Age of Fish”Fossil of a devonian fishWith jaws and armored plates
9 Fish have a two chambered heart- blood is passed over the gills where it picks up oxygen
10 Respiration Water passes over GILLS, oxygen is added Some fish have gill covers - OPERCULUM(Some fish have special organs to serve as lungs; lungfish)
11 ExcretionHomeostasis: maintaining balance, internal conditions (in the case of fish, water balance)Salt water fish tend to lose waterFresh water fish tend to gain water*This is why you can’t put a salt water fish in a fresh water tank.
12 Other Fish Adaptations Fish fins help stabilize the fish and propel it forwardSwim Bladder - maintains buoyancy (like a balloon)
13 ReproductionSpawning- fish lay eggs that are fertilized externally
14 Warm Up 1. What are the steps of complete metamorphosis? 2. What are the stages of incomplete metamorphosis?3. What is an open circulatory system?4. How do bivalves move and feed?
18 Amphibians 3 types/orders: Anura (frogs and toads), Caudata (salamanders and newts), andGymnophiona (caecilians, limbless amphibians that resemble snakes)
19 What’s the difference between a frog and a toad? 1. Many toads have lumps behind their eyes that contain poison that oozes out when they are attacked.2. Skin-Frogs are moist and smoothToads are dry and bumpy
20 Frog Dissection What are the rules of lab? How should we behave?
25 Reptiles An ectothermic vertebrate that has lungs and scaly skin. Major Groups:LizardsSnakesTurtlesAlligatorsCrocodiles
26 4 living orders are typically recognized: Crocodilia (crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and alligators): 23 speciesSphenodontia (tuataras from New Zealand): 2 speciesSquamata (lizards, snakes, and worm lizards): approximately 9,150 speciesTestudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises): over 300 species
27 ReptilesUnlike amphibians, which have a thin, moist skin, reptiles have dry, tough skin covered with scales.Skin protects and helps keep water in their bodies.
28 Reptiles Lizards and snakes shed their skin. All snakes are carnivores but not all lizards are.Turtles have a shell made from their ribs and backbone.
29 Reptiles What is the difference between an alligator and a croc? Alligators have broad, rounded snouts, with only a few teeth visible.Crocodiles have pointed snouts, and you can see most of their teeth.
31 BirdsBird: an endothermic vertebrate that has feathers and a four-chambered heart, and lays eggs.The rule is:If it has feathers, it’s a bird.
32 BirdsFeathers:Contour: one of the large feathers that give shape to a bird’s body.Flight: long contour feathers that extend beyond the body on the wings and tail.Down: short, fluffy that are specialized to trap heat and keep a bird warm.
40 Evolution of Birds…Create a Venn Diagram- characteristics of reptiles, similarities, characteristics of birds. Then come up with your own explanation of the evolution of birds.
41 The evolutionary origin of birds has always been a subject of considerable debate. Birds and flying reptiles have delicate, lightweight skeletons which do not fossilize well - hindering studies on how the birds evolved. The first bird fossil to be found was a feather, which was discovered in 1860 in a limestone quarry in Bavaria. The feather was given the name Archaeopteryx, which is Greek for 'ancient feather'. A year later an almost complete skeleton of Archaeopteryx was discovered in the same quarry, with the feathers and other fine structures preserved in minute detail.
42 The skeleton showed several features which are intermediate between reptiles and birds, suggesting that Archaeopteryx and the other birds evolved from a dinosaur similar to the Velociraptor featured in the film 'Jurassic Park'. Seven partial or complete Archaeopteryx skeletons have now been found, and they are still among the most famous, and scientifically valuable, fossils.
47 MammalsAll mammals are endothermic vertebrates with a 4 chambered heart and skin covered with fur or hair.
48 Mammals All mammals have…. 1. Hair or fur 2. Mammary glands (feed with milk)3. Distinctive teeth4. Highly developed brain5. Extended care for the young
49 Mammals Three groups of mammals Monotremes Marsupials Placental mammals
50 Mammals Monotremes Mammals that lay eggs Two species: Spiny anteaters Duck-billed platypuses
51 MammalsMarsupialsYoung born alive at an early stage, but continue to develop in a pouchExamples:KangaroosKoalasWallabiesopossums
52 Mammals Placental Mammals Develop inside a mother’s body until its body system can function independently.Examples:Insect-eatersFlying mammalsPrimatesRodentsRabbits/haresMarine mammalsHoofed mammals