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**When this bumper car collides with another car, two forces are exerted**

When this bumper car collides with another car, two forces are exerted. Each car in the collision exerts a force on the other.

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Newton’s Third Law What is Newton’s third law of motion? According to Newton’s third law of motion, whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object.

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Newton’s Third Law Action and Reaction Forces The force your bumper car exerts on the other car is the action force. The force the other car exerts on your car is the reaction force. These two forces are equal in size and opposite in direction.

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**Suppose you press your hand against a wall.**

Newton’s Third Law Suppose you press your hand against a wall. Your hand exerts an action force on the wall. The wall exerts an equal and opposite reaction force against your hand.

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Newton’s Third Law Action-Reaction Forces and Motion A swimmer pushing against the water is an action force. The reaction force acting on the swimmer causes motion through the water.

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Newton’s Third Law Action-reaction forces propel the swimmer through the water. The swimmer pushes against the water, and the water pushes the swimmer.

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Newton’s Third Law Action-Reaction Forces Do Not Cancel For the swimmer, why do the action and reaction forces not cancel each other and produce a net force of zero?

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Newton’s Third Law Action-Reaction Forces Do Not Cancel For the swimmer, why do the action and reaction forces not cancel each other and produce a net force of zero? The action and reaction forces do not act on the same object.

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Newton's Third Law Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first Force pairs Which exerts more force: Earth pulling on the Moon, or the Moon pulling on Earth?

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**Determining Force Pairs**

Action- Object A exerts a force on object B Reaction- Object B exerts a force on object A

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**Action Reaction on Different Masses**

A given force exerted on a small mass produces a large acceleration, while the same force exerted on a large mass produces a small acceleration A high-speed bus and an innocent bug have a head-on collision. The force of the bus on the bug splatters the poor bug all over the windshield. Is the corresponding force of the bug on the bus greater, less or the same? Is the resulting deceleration of the bus greater less than or the same as the bug?

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**Action reaction forces act on different objects so they don’t cancel each other out!**

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The person who exerts the greatest force against the ground not on the rope will win a game of tug of war! QUIZ

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**Momentum The product of an objects mass and its velocity is momentum.**

An object has a large momentum if the product of its mass and velocity is large. The momentum for an object at rest is zero.

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**Momentum Formula Determine the momentum of …**

Determine the momentum of … a. … an electron (m= 9.1 x10-31 kg) moving at 2.18 x 106 m/s (as if it were in a Bohr orbit in the H atom). b. … a 0.45 Caliber bullet (m = kg) leaving the muzzle of a gun at 860 m/s. c. … a 110-kg professional fullback running across the line at 9.2 m/s. d. … a 360,000-kg passenger plane taxiing down a runway at 1.5 m/s

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**Conservation of Momentum**

If no net force acts on a system, then the total momentum of the system does not change. In a closed system, the loss of momentum of one object equals the gain in momentum of another object- momentum is conserved.

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**Conservation of Momentum**

A 120 kg lineman moving west at 2 m/s tackles an 80 kg football fullback moving east at 8 m/s. After the collision, both players move east at 2 m/s. Draw a vector diagram in which the before- and after-collision momenta of each player is represented by a momentum vector. Label the magnitude of each momentum vector.

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12.2 Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion. Objects in motion tend to stay in.

12.2 Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion. Objects in motion tend to stay in.

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