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Friday May 3, 2013 OAPT 35 th Annual Conference at University of Ontario Institute of Technology Dave Doucette teacher: chemistry, AP physics Richmond Hill High School OAPT Past- President Richmond Hill, Ontario 2009-2011 905-884-2131 ext 468 doucettefamily@sympatico.ca “Getting the HOTS* with Brain Research” "Explosive growth in brain-based research and neuroplasticity points the way to improved learning of physics. In this session, participants will experience classroom practices designed to selectively integrate brain centres of algebraic, linguistic, pictorial and graphical reasoning. Expert learners are able to do this naturally, the challenge is to move novice learners much further along the continuum - and improve retention and enrollment in high-school physics classrooms. The surge in STEM education puts physics teachers plainly on the crest of a wave. These research-driven brain-based strategies will show us how best to ride it. Hop on board - surf's up!"

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3 Pillars of Effective Teaching Content knowledge Knowledge of physics concepts, relationships among them and methods of developing new knowledge Pedagogical content knowledge Orientation towards teaching Knowledge of physics curriculum Knowledge of student ideas Knowledge of effective instructional strategies Knowledge of assessment methods Pedagogical knowledge Knowledge of brain development, Knowledge of cognitive science, Knowledge of collaborative learning, Knowledge of classroom management and school laws

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The new reality: STEM Education Why is STEM Education a National Priority? (US Data) “The average annual wage for all STEM occupations was $77,880 in May 2009, significantly above the U.S. average of $43,460 for non-STEM occupations.” “60 percent of U.S. employers are having difficulties finding qualified workers to fill vacancies at their companies.” “Over the past 10 years, growth in STEM jobs was three times as fast as growth in non-STEM jobs.” “In almost every state, children will get less time for science in elementary school than they did 15-20 years ago.” (NB: no EQAO testing for science in Ontario!)

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STEM Education PER & Brain Research Carl Weiman,UBC Nobel Prize Physics 2001 feature article in: Issues in Science & Technology, Fall, 2012 “Applying New Research to Improve Science Education” The current approach to STEM education is built on the assumption those with STEM “talent” will succeed, usually easily, whereas the others have no hope. Research advances in cognitive psychology, brain physiology, and classroom practices are painting a very different picture of how learning works. Children have the capability to learn complex reasoning at much earlier ages than previously thought, at least from the beginning of their formal schooling Cognitive processes that are explicitly and strenuously practiced are those that are learned…. called “deliberate practice”.

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Physics: Multiple Modalities Conceptual (language) Algebraic Graphical Pictorial Frontal (Executive) Cortex Cognitive processes that are explicitly and strenuously practiced are those that are learned…. called “ deliberate practice”.

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AP Physics 1 and 2 Curriculum Framework 2014-2015: new Science Practices When using equations or mathematical representations, students need to be able to justify why using a particular equation to analyze a particular situation is useful, as well as to be aware of the conditions under which the equations/ mathematical representations can be used. Students tend to rely too much on mathematical representations. When solving a problem, they need to be able to describe the problem situation in multiple ways, including picture representations, force diagrams, and so on, and then choose an appropriate mathematical representation, instead of first choosing a formula whose variables match the givens in the problem. (p124)

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AP College Board, 2014-2015 Sample Multiple Choice Question 1. Two solid spheres of radius R made of the same type of steel are placed in contact, as shown in the figures above. The magnitude of the gravitational force that they exert on each other is F 1. When two other solid spheres of radius 3R made of this steel are placed in contact, what is the magnitude of the gravitational force that they exert on each other? (p131) (A) F 1 (B) 3 F 1 (C) 9 F 1 (D) 81 F 1 R R

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AP College Board, 2014-2015 Sample Free Response Question: Experimental Design 1. You are given a set of chimes that consists of eight hollow metal tubes open at both ends, as shown below. The chimes are played by striking them with a small hammer to produce musical sounds. Your task is to use the chimes to determine the speed of sound in air at room temperature. You have available a set of tuning forks and other common laboratory equipment but are not allowed to use electronic equipment, such as a sound sensor. (p138) (a) Describe your experimental procedure in enough detail so that another student could perform your experiment. Include what measurements you will take and how you will take them. (b) Describe how you will use your measurements to determine the speed of sound, in enough detail that another student could duplicate your process. (c) Describe one assumption you made about the design of your experiment, and explain how it might affect the value obtained for the speed of sound.

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Integrating Modalities: Begin at the beginning! The Physics Teacher SPH3U Constant Motion SPH3U acceleration SPH3U problem solving Less is more! [AP research results]

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Evaluating the 4 Modalities 1. A car traveling at 40 m/s [N] accelerates at 4.0 m/s 2 [S] for 6.0 s. Determine the displacement of the car in the 6.0 s interval? Solve, using either a graphical or algebraic solution. 2. The velocity-time graph of a skidoo is shown, right. Use the information provided in the graph to determine the initial velocity, v o, of the object. 3. For a physics investigation you are asked to determine if the time taken for a ball to roll down a ramp is dependent on the mass of the ball. In this investigation identify: i) the independent variable ___________ ii) the dependent variable ________________ iii) two control variables ___________________ _________________ iv) Describe the ideal results you would expect to obtain. Explain your reasoning. 4. Describe the method you can use with a velocity-time graph to measure displacement of an object. Sketch a sample v-t graph, with sample velocity values, to illustrate a displacement. 5. A motion diagram is shown below. A student looks at it and remarks “That is showing a westerly velocity and a westerly acceleration!” Is the student correct? Justify. N S W E

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Building Robust Mental Models Stepping up the antè with ‘rich learning experiences’ Focus: pictorial representations/schemas Free Body Diagrams ‘kicked up a notch’ Time to get Whiteboarding!

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Force System Diagrams (schema) traditional paradigm Common misconception F bt and F bE are action-reaction forces. Why?

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Force System Diagram (schema) book table Entire Earth draw ALL forces between objects in system, using lines with arrows at each end (3 rd Law) Label each force line: F g,F N, F f, F T, … F g1 F g2 F N1 F N2 Free Body Diagrams book F N1 F g1 table F g2 F N1 F N2 Entire Earth F N2 F g2 F g1

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Force System Diagrams 2 student pulling book across table Modify your force system diagram!

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Force System Diagram 2 book table Entire Earth draw ALL forces between objects in system, using lines with arrows at each end (3 rd Law) Label each force line: F g,F N, F f, F T, … F g1 F g2 F N1 F N2 Free Body Diagrams book F N1 F g1 table F g2 F N1 F N2 book table student FTFT FTFT FfFf FfFf FfFf F f2

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Focus: SPH4U Energy Transfers/Transformations

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4U: Multiple Representations & System Diagrams for Energy Systems Let us play! Guided Inquiry - Dollar Store style. The car launcher The dart gun ~10% of US physics HS teachers use guided inquiry. It requires content depth and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK).

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Optional: From Force System Diagrams to Energy Systems Force System diagrams are ideal platforms for Energy Systems… …and an ideal precursor for thermodynamics Check it out

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Energy System Diagram book table Entire Earth F g1 F g2 F N1 F N2 book table student FTFT FfFf F f2 boundaries of closed system External Agent internal energy transformations ∑E initial = ∑E final E system =0 external energy transfers W= F. d E system ≠0 treating Friction: use a ‘cheat’: Work done by friction often produces a positive E thermal W friction = + E thermal

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A Look Forward...University Preparation Randall Knight, California Polytechnic State University “ Using Multiple Representations to Understand Energy” Challenge Question: A 5.0 kg box is attached to one end of a spring that has a spring constant of k=80 N/m. The other end of the spring is attached to a wall. Initially the box is at rest at the spring’s equilibrium position. A rope with a constant tension of F T =100 N pulls the box away from the wall. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the floor is k =0.30. What is the speed of the box after it has moved 50 cm?

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Finding a Solution The full energy conservation statement is: ΔE sys = ΔK + ΔU + ΔEt h =W ext. The rope does external work W ext = TΔx, the spring’s potential energy increases by ΔU = ½ k(Δx) 2, and the thermal energy increases by ΔEt h = −W fric = −(− f k Δx) = μ k m g Δx. These can be used to compute the box’s increase in kinetic energy and thus to find v f = 3.6 m/s. A student who successfully solves a problem like this has come a long way toward a full understanding of energy in mechanical systems.

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Easily Handled by 4U classes! A block (m = 0.750 kg) is to be propelled across a floor, up a ramp and onto a table top. The table top is 1.00 m above the floor, and the ramp is 2.00 m long. The floor and the table top are frictionless, while the ramp is not. The block will experience a force of friction on the ramp of 1.20 N on the ramp. The spring that will propel the block has a constant of 600.0 N/m. Question: How far must the spring be compressed in order to get the block onto the table top with a speed of 3.5 m/s?

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Educational Leadership, May 2010 In our vision of the future, perhaps 10% of the teaching force – drawn form a pool of the most accomplished educators – will assume hybrid roles as lead teachers…(p38) “We must create pathways for effective teachers to take on a variety of leadership roles in the profession without giving up teaching.” (p39) Alternative staffing arrangements and schedules…will also help bridge some of the key policy questions in education reform right now, including how to evaluate, compensate and develop teachers. ∑ (BBL+ STEM + PER + JOBS) = STEM Master Teachers

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