MAGLEV is the principle used in working of Maglev Trains. MAGLEV – Derived from MAGnet and LEVitation. Method of supporting and transporting objects which is based on the physical property that the force between two magnetized bodies is inversely proportional to their distance. Magnetic force counterbalances the gravitational pull between a magnet and a guideway.
Maglev principle can be applied in two ways- 1. Electro-Magnetic Suspension (EMS) System 2. Electro-Dynamic Levitation (EDL) System
1. Electro-Magnetic Suspension (EMS) System It is attraction type of system. Magnet- guideway geometry is used to attract a direct- current electromagnet towards the track. EMS levitates the train about one-third of an inch above the guideway. Maglev train (Transrapid) in Germany works on EMS.
2. Electro-Dynamic Levitation (EDL) System It is repulsion type of system. Eddy currents are generated by superconducting coil operating in persistent current mode. Eddy currents create a magnetic field and opposes the magnetic field created by traveling coil by Lenz’s law. EDL levitates the train about 4 inches (10 cm) above the guideway. Maglev train in Japan works on EDL.
The electromagnets on the underside of the train pull it up to the ferromagnetic stators on the track and levitate the train. The magnets on the side keep the train from moving from side to side. A computer changes the amount of current to keep the train 1 cm from the track. This means there is no friction between the train and the track!
The passing of the superconducting magnets by figure eight levitation coils on the side of the tract induces a current in the coils and creates a magnetic field. This pushes the train upward so that it can levitate 10 cm above the track. The train does not levitate until it reaches 50 mph, so it is equipped with retractable wheels.
Batteries on the train power the system, and therefore it still functions without propulsion. The batteries can levitate the train for 30 minutes without any additional energy. Linear generators in the magnets on board the train use the motion of the train to recharge the batteries. Levitation system uses less power than the trains air conditioning.
The system consists of aluminum three-phase cable windings in the stator packs that are on the guideway. When a current is supplied to the windings, it creates a traveling alternating current that propels the train forward by pushing and pulling.
When the alternating current is reversed, the train brakes. Different speeds are achieved by varying the intensity of the current. Only the section of track where the train is traveling is electrified.
When one side of the train nears the side of the guideway, the super conducting magnet on the train induces a repulsive force from the levitation coils on the side closer to the train and an attractive force from the coils on the farther side. This keeps the train in the center.
The trains are virtually impossible to derail because the train is wrapped around the track. Collisions between trains are unlikely because computers are controlling the trains movements. There is very little maintenance because there is no contact between the parts. Safety Maintenance
The ride is smooth while not accelerating. The initial investment is similar to other high speed rail roads. (Maglift is $20-$40 million per mile and I-279 in Pittsburg cost $37 million per mile 17 years ago.) Operating expenses are half of that of other railroads. A train is composed of sections that each contain 100 seats, and a train can have between 2 and 10 sections. The linear generators produce electricity for the cabin of the train Comfort Economic Efficiency
The train can travel at about 300 mph. (Acela can only go 150 mph) For trips of distances up to 500 miles its total travel time is equal to a planes (including check in time and travel to airport.) It can accelerate to 200 mph in 3 miles, so it is ideal for short jumps. (ICE needs 20 miles to reach 200 mph.) It uses less energy than existing transportation systems. For every seat on a 300 km trip with 3 stops, the gasoline used per 100 miles varies with the speed. At 200 km/h - 1 litre ; At 300 km/h - 1.5 litres ; At 400 km/h - 2 litres This is 1/3 the energy used by cars and 1/5 the energy used by jets per mile. Environment Speed
The tracks have less impact on the environment because- The elevated models (50ft in the air) allows all animals to pass Low models ( 5-10 ft) allow small animals to pass Use less land than conventional trains Can handle tighter turns.
The train makes little noise because it does not touch the track and it has no motor. Therefore, all noise comes from moving air. This sound is equivalent to the noise produced by city traffic. Noise Pollution
The magnetic field created is low, therefore there are no adverse effects. Magnetic Field
Less susceptible to congestion and weather conditions than air or highway. Petroleum Independence. Less Polluting. Maglev trains experience no rolling resistance, leaving only air resistance, potentially improving power efficiency. Maglev trains produce less noise than a conventional train at equivalent speeds.
Faster trips, High speed, Less time. Eliminates the need for overhead wires compared to conventional trains. Average cost is 4 cents per passenger mile as compared to 13 cents per passenger. Access to Maglev station is much easier than airports. Maglev schedule will not be disturbed due to bad weather.
Large initial capital investment. Lack of human experience with Maglev technology. Designing of tracks.
Info LocaleShanghai Transit typeMaglev Number of lines2 Number of stations2 Operation Began operationJanuary 1, 2004 Operator(s)Shanghai Maglev Transportation Development Co., Ltd. Technical System length30.5 km (19.0 mi)
Double-track project started on March 2001. Connects the Pudong International Airport and the Longyang Road Station. The total cost of the project is about 10 billion yuan (1.2 billion US dollars). Takes 7 minutes and 20 seconds to complete the distance of 30 km.
Uses EDS mechanism. Has a design speed of over 500 km/h (310 mph). Has a regular service speed of 430 km/h (267 mph). Set world record achieving top speed of 501 km/h (311 mph) in November 12,2003. Noise level less than 60 decibels at 300 km/h. Shanghai Maglev is the fastest railway system in commercial operation in the world.
Line operates daily between 06:45–21:30 One-way ticket cost ¥50 (US$7.27 ) or ¥40 ($5.81) for those passengers holding a receipt or proof of an airline ticket purchase. Round-trip return ticket cost ¥80 ($11.63) VIP tickets cost double the standard fare. The service operates once every 15 minutes. Of all the world's Airport Rail Links, the Demonstration Operation Line is by far the fastest.
Info LocaleEmsland,Germany Transit typeMaglev Number of lines1 Number of stations1 Operation Began operation1984 OperatorTransrapid International Technical System length31.5 kilometers
Construction of the facility began in 1980 and was completed in 1984. The total cost of project was 1 billion $. Uses EMS mechanism. Current working model-TR07. Runs between Dörpen and Lathen. Fare is $25 for a two way tour. Demonstrated safe operation at 270 mph (121 m/s). However, can attain a max. speed of 311 mph (139 m/s).
Uses separate conventional iron-core attracting electromagnets to generate vehicle lift and guidance. TR07 propulsion is by a long-stator LSM. Control systems maintain an inch gap between train and guideway.
Info LocaleNagoya, Japan Transit typeMaglev Number of lines2 Number of stations9 Operation Began operationJanuary, 2004 Operator Aichi Rapid Transit Co., Ltd. Technical System length8.9 km
World's first commercial automated "Urban Maglev" system. Built for the 2005 World Expo in Nagoya Japan. Connects Bampaku-yakusa station to Fujigaoka station. The line serves the local community. The total cost was $100 million per km.
Runs at average speed of 100 km/h. Designed by the Chubu HSST Development Corporation. Uses EMS mechanism. Floats 8 mm above the track being held up by magnetic force.
Able to carry 4000 passengers in each direction every hour. Linimo is a Japanese MAGLEV train which is far less famous than Shanghai's one. It is not an express train but a local train and is very normal train at first look. However, if you ride on it, you will notice that there is no driver at the front seat and the train is very silent when it is running underground tracks.
Being tested on a test track in Yamanashi prefecture. Developed by the Central Japan Railway Co. ("JR Central") and Kawasaki Heavy Industries. Proposed to connect Tokyo to Osaka. Use superconducting magnets. Uses EDS mechanism. Achieved a world record speed of 581 km/h on December 2, 2003.
Uses higher speed potential. Uses repulsive system than attraction system. Provides larger air gap. Thus, accommodates the ground motion experienced in Japan's earthquake-prone territory.
The design of Japan's repulsion system is not firm. Very expensive
Connects Sakaigawa and Akiyama of Yamanashi Prefecture. Total length of 42.8km. Built to perform confirmation to obtain a final perspective of Maglev feasibility. The Test Center was officially opened on July 1996, to start on the program of test runs and complete the developmental activities
Confirmation for possibilities of safe, comfortable, and stable run at 500 km/h. Confirmation of reliability and durability of the vehicle, wayside facilities, and equipment as well as the Superconducting Magnets. Confirmation of structural standards including the minimum radius of curvature and the steepest gradient. Confirmation of center-to-center track distance for safety of trains passing each other.
Confirmation of vehicle performance in relation to tunnel cross-section and to pressure fluctuations in the tunnels. Confirmation of performance of the turnout facilities. Confirmation of environmental impact. Establishment of multiple-train operation control systems. Confirmation of operation and safety systems and track maintenance criteria. Establishment of inter-substation control systems. Pursuit of economic issues, construction and operation costs.
China is building a 20 mile system between Shanghai Pudong and Pudong International Airport. It will open in January of 2004, and it will reach speeds of over 250 mph. If the project is successful, then China will build a system from Beijing to Shanghai, a journey of over 800 miles.
The United States Congress is planning to spend $1 billion for a test project that either connects Pittsburgh’s suburbs with its airport or Baltimore to the Washington International Airport. Germany was going to build a magnetic lift system between Berlin and Hamburg (200 miles) in 1996, but never did because a new political party came in and decided that the improvements over ICE was not worth $7 billion dollars.
This system is not ready for use now, but it should be ready in a few years. It’s top speed with people aboard is 350 mph. The super conducting magnets create a strong magnetic field that could be a problem for some passengers.
The train is earthquake proof because the greater space (10 cm) between the track and the train leaves more room for track deformation. Linear generators will produce all the electricity needed in the train’s interior. Only the part of the track that is used will be electrified so no energy is wasted.
Maglev trains use magnets to levitate and propel the trains forward. Since there is no friction these trains can reach high speeds. It is a safe and efficient way to travel. Governments have mixed feelings about the technology. Some countries, like China, have embraced it and others like Germany have balked at the expense.