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1Microtubules By Lynne Cassimeris Chapter 7MicrotubulesByLynne Cassimeris
27.1 Introduction The cytoskeleton is made up of protein polymers. Each polymer contains many thousands of identical subunits that are strung together to make a filament.
3Cells have three types of cytoskeletal polymers: 7.1 IntroductionThe cytoskeleton:generates cell movementsprovides mechanical support for the cellCells have three types of cytoskeletal polymers:actin filamentsintermediate filamentsmicrotubules
4All cytoskeletal polymers are dynamic; 7.1 IntroductionAll cytoskeletal polymers are dynamic;they continually gain and lose subunits.Microtubules are polymers of tubulin subunits.Microtubules almost always function in concert with molecular motors that:generate forcemove vesicles and other complexes along the microtubule surface
5Cilia and flagella are specialized organelles composed of: 7.1 IntroductionCilia and flagella are specialized organelles composed of:microtubulesmotor proteins that:propel a cell through fluid ormove fluid over the surface of a cellDrugs that disrupt microtubules have medicinal and agricultural uses.
67.2 General functions of microtubules Cells use microtubules to provide structural support.Microtubules are the strongest of the cytoskeletal polymers.Microtubules resist compression.Cells also rely on the dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules to allow them to quickly reorganize the microtubule cytoskeleton.
7Cells can make their microtubules more or less dynamic. 7.2 General functions of microtubulesCells can make their microtubules more or less dynamic.This allows them to take advantage of:the adaptability of microtubules (when dynamic) orthe strength of microtubules (when stable)Different cells can have unique organizations of microtubules to suit specific needs.
87.3 Microtubules are polar polymers of α- and β- tubulin Microtubules are hollow polymers of tubulin heterodimers.Thirteen linear chains of subunits, called protofilaments, associate laterally to form the microtubule.
9Lateral bonds between protofilaments: 7.3 Microtubules are polar polymers of α- and β- tubulinLateral bonds between protofilaments:stabilize the microtubulelimit subunit addition and subtraction to microtubule endsMicrotubules are polarized polymers. The plus end is crowned by β-tubulin and assembles faster.The minus end is crowned by α-tubulin and assembles slower.
107.4 Purified tubulin subunits assemble into microtubules Microtubule polymerization begins with the formation of a small number of nuclei (small polymers).Microtubules polymerize by addition of tubulin subunits to both ends of the polymer.
117.4 Purified tubulin subunits assemble into microtubules A critical concentration of tubulin subunits always remains in solution.The concentration of tubulin must be above the critical concentration for assembly to occur.
127.5 Microtubule assembly and disassembly proceed by a unique process termed dynamic instability Microtubules constantly switch between phases of growth and shortening;this process is termed dynamic instability.The transition from growing to shortening states is called a catastrophe.The transition from shortening to growing states is called a rescue.
13A population of microtubules grows and shortens asynchronously; 7.5 Microtubule assembly and disassembly proceed by a unique process termed dynamic instabilityA population of microtubules grows and shortens asynchronously;at any instant in time, most are growing and a few are shortening.The structures of growing and shortening microtubule ends are different:growing ends have extensions of protofilamentsshortening ends have curling protofilaments that bend back away from the microtubule lattice
147.6 A cap of GTP-tubulin subunits regulates the transitions of dynamic instability Growing microtubules have a cap of GTP-tubulins at their tip.Because the GTP associated with β- tubulin is hydrolyzed to GDP shortly after a subunit adds to a microtubule.The bulk of the microtubule is made up of GDP-tubulins.
15GTP-tubulins form straight protofilaments. 7.6 A cap of GTP-tubulin subunits regulates the transitions of dynamic instabilityHydrolysis of GTP is coupled to a structural change in the tubulin dimers.GTP-tubulins form straight protofilaments.These maintain contacts with subunits in adjacent protofilaments.They allow these protofilaments to continue growing.
16GDP-tubulins curve away from the microtubule. 7.6 A cap of GTP-tubulin subunits regulates the transitions of dynamic instabilityGDP-tubulins curve away from the microtubule.This breaks lateral bonds with adjacent subunits.This causes protofilaments to peel apart.
177.7 Cells use microtubule-organizing centers to nucleate microtubule assembly In cells, microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) nucleate microtubules.The position of the microtubule-organizing center determines the organization of microtubules within the cell.
18The centrosome is the most common MTOC in animal cells. 7.7 Cells use microtubule-organizing centers to nucleate microtubule assemblyThe centrosome is the most common MTOC in animal cells.Centrosomes are made up of a pair of centrioles surrounded by a pericentriolar matrix.
19The pericentriolar matrix contains γ-tubulin. 7.7 Cells use microtubule-organizing centers to nucleate microtubule assemblyThe pericentriolar matrix contains γ-tubulin.it is γ-tubulin, in complex with several other proteins, that nucleates microtubules.Motile animal cells contain a second MTOC, the basal body.
207.8 Microtubule dynamics in cells Dynamic instability is the major pathway of microtubule turnover in cells.Microtubule plus ends are much more dynamic in cells than they are in vitro.
21Free minus ends never grow; 7.8 Microtubule dynamics in cellsFree minus ends never grow;they either are stabilized or depolymerize.Cells contain a subpopulation of nondynamic, stable microtubules.
227.9 Why do cells have dynamic microtubules? Dynamic microtubules can search intracellular space and quickly find targets, regardless of their location.Dynamic microtubules:are adaptablecan be easily reorganized
23Growing and shortening microtubules: 7.9 Why do cells have dynamic microtubules?Growing and shortening microtubules:can generate forcecan be used to move vesicles or other intracellular componentsThe ability of microtubules to generate force allows the entire array of microtubules to organize itself into a starlike pattern.
247.10 Cells use several classes of proteins to regulate the stability of their microtubules Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate microtubule assembly by stabilizing or destabilizing microtubules.MAPs determine how likely it is that a microtubule will grow or shorten
25MAPs can bind to different locations on the microtubule. 7.10 Cells use several classes of proteins to regulate the stability of their microtubulesMAPs can bind to different locations on the microtubule.Some MAPs bind along the sides of the microtubule.Others bind only at the tips of microtubules.Still others bind only to the tubulin dimers and prevent them from polymerizing.
26Changing the balance between active stabilizers. 7.10 Cells use several classes of proteins to regulate the stability of their microtubulesChanging the balance between active stabilizers.Destabilizers regulates microtubule turnover.The activity of MAPs is regulated by phosphorylation.MAPs can also link membranes or protein complexes to microtubules.
277.11 Introduction to microtubule-based motor proteins Almost every cell function that depends on microtubules requires microtubule-based motors.Molecular motors are enzymes that:generate force“walk” along microtubules toward the plus or minus ends
28The motor “head” domain binds microtubules and generates force. 7.11 Introduction to microtubule-based motor proteinsThe motor “head” domain binds microtubules and generates force.The “tail” domain typically binds membrane or other cargo.
29Most kinesins “walk” toward the plus ends of microtubules. 7.11 Introduction to microtubule-based motor proteinsMost kinesins “walk” toward the plus ends of microtubules.Dyneins “walk” toward the minus ends of microtubules.
307.12 How motor proteins work Motor proteins use ATP hydrolysis to power movement.The nucleotide (ATP, ADP, or no nucleotide) bound to a motor’s head domain determines how tightly the head binds to the microtubule.
31ATP hydrolysis also changes the shape of the head. 7.12 How motor proteins workATP hydrolysis also changes the shape of the head.This shape change is amplified to generate a larger movement of the motor molecule.
32By this mechanism the motor steps along the microtubule. 7.12 How motor proteins workCycles of ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide release couple microtubule attachments with changes in the shape of the motor’s head domain.By this mechanism the motor steps along the microtubule.It takes one step for each ATP hydrolyzed.
337.13 How cargoes are loaded onto the right motor Binding of motors to specific cargoes is mediated by the motor tail domain.Adaptor proteins associate with motors to regulate motor activity and to link motors to cargo.
347.13 How cargoes are loaded onto the right motor Coordination of plus end- and minus end-directed motor activities is used to generate bidirectional movement of organelles.
357.14 Microtubule dynamics and motors combine to generate the asymmetric organization of cells Dynamic microtubules and motors work together to generate cell asymmetries.Microtubules work together with the actin cytoskeleton during processes such as:cell locomotionmitotic spindle positioning
367.15 Interactions between microtubules and actin filaments Microtubules and actin filaments function together during cell locomotion and cell division.In general, microtubules direct where and when actin assembles or generates contractile forces.Microtubules influence the actin cytoskeleton through:direct bindingindirect signaling
377.15 Interactions between microtubules and actin filaments The two cytoskeletal systems can be bound together by linker proteins that attach microtubules to actin filaments.The dynamic growth and shortening of microtubules can activate a subset of G proteins.These activated G proteins control actin assembly and cell contraction.
387.16 Cilia and flagella are motile structures Cilia and flagella contain a highly ordered core structure called an axoneme.The axoneme is composed of nine outer doublet microtubules surrounding a pair of central microtubules.
397.16 Cilia and flagella are motile structures Radial spokes, a complex of several polypeptides, link each outer doublet to the center of the axoneme.Dyneins are bound to each outer doublet and extend their motor domains toward the adjacent outer doublet.
40Dynein slides the outer doublets past each other. 7.16 Cilia and flagella are motile structuresDynein slides the outer doublets past each other.The structural links between outer doublets converts the sliding motion into a bending of the axoneme.Kinesins participate in flagellar assembly by transporting axonemal proteins to the distal tip of flagella.Nonmotile primary cilia participate in sensory processes.
417.19 Supplement: What if tubulin didn’t hydrolyze GTP? If microtubules were equilibrium polymers they:would depolymerize very slowlywould not easily reorganizeTubulin dimers hydrolyze GTP when they assemble.This makes the microtubule a nonequilibrium polymer that can depolymerize rapidly.
427.20 Supplement: Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching The fluorescent tag on proteins or lipids can be locally destroyed using very bright light from a laser.Recovery of fluorescence into the photobleached area occurs as unbleached proteins or lipids move into the bleached area.They change places with the photobleached protein or lipid.
437.20 Supplement: Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching Recovery of photobleached regions on fluorescently tagged microtubules requires:disassembly of the photobleached microtubulenew polymerization incorporating unbleached, fluorescent tubulin dimers
447.21 Supplement: Tubulin synthesis and modification Synthesis of new tubulin is regulated by the concentration of dimers in the cytoplasm.α- and β-tubulins require cytosolic chaperonins and additional cofactors to fold properly and assemble into a heterodimer.Tubulins are subject to a number of posttranslational modifications.
45Some modifications only occur on tubulins in polymers. 7.21 Supplement: Tubulin synthesis and modificationSome modifications only occur on tubulins in polymers.These modifications are associated with a stable subpopulation of microtubules.In some organisms, the presence of posttranslationally modified tubulins within a microtubule:enhances the binding of motor proteinsprovides an additional mechanism to regulate vesicle traffic in the cell
467.22 Supplement: Motility assays for microtubulebased motor proteins Motors remain active in cell extracts, allowing their purification.Motor proteins stick to glass slides and power gliding of microtubules over their surface.
47Beads coated with motor proteins are transported along microtubules. 7.22 Supplement: Motility assays for microtubulebased motor proteinsBeads coated with motor proteins are transported along microtubules.Using polarity-marked microtubules, it is possible to determine which way a motor moves on a microtubule.