Presentation on theme: "Lacrosse by Everett and Nik. Origins of Lacrosse Invented in North America in the (approx.)1400’s. Played by the Onondaga, Eastern Cherokee, Ojibwe, Mohawk."— Presentation transcript:
Origins of Lacrosse Invented in North America in the (approx.)1400’s. Played by the Onondaga, Eastern Cherokee, Ojibwe, Mohawk and many other tribes throughout N. America. The game served many purposes including; pleasing the creator, training for war, and settling land disputes between tribes. Games were often violent, without clearly defined rules or regulations.
The Game might last for days, ending at sunset and beginning at sunrise. Played with a ball made from deerskin, wood, stone, or heads of their enemies. (Geez!) Fields were 500 yards to over a mile wide with 100 to 1,000 players at one time. A distinguishing natural object was used for the goals. Sticks were used to propel the ball towards the goal and to injure opponents. The game was won when one team gave up.
Discovery by Europeans First discovered by French Jesuit, Jean de Brebeuf in 1636. Brebeuf references “Crosse” the then popular French word for “Stick.” Thus naming the sport Lacrosse or “The stick.” Europeans saw the game as savage, but nonetheless enjoyed placing bets and being avid spectators. 1736 Fort Michilimackinac revolt catches spectators off guard. Since dubbed, “The Conspiracy of Pontiac.”
Late 1700’s, Colonial French try their hand at Lacrosse, but lose miserably, consistently, to skilled Native players. Earliest example 1844, a team of 7 Frenchmen lose horribly to 5 Native men.
The birth of modern Lacrosse 1856 - A dentist from Montreal, Dr. George Beers creates first Lacrosse club. 1867 - Lacrosse is all the rage in Canada, with 80 clubs, Beers creates a uniform code of rules. Beers publishes book called Lacrosse: The National Game of Canada, detailing its history and modern rules. 1867 - First game played under Beers’ rules at Upper Canada College a success. 1870 - First women’s Lacrosse game in Sctld.
Beers’ modernizing changes Beers reduced the team number to a maximum of 10 players each. A rubber ball, still used today, took the place of the deerskin or human head. Beers also shortened the length of the game.
...and how about the Native Americans? These new rules did make the game less violent for everybody, including native tribes. As tribe numbers dwindled, so did the game, leading some tribes to quit playing altogether. Excessive gambling and hooligan-esque violence made the game increasingly unpopular in native communities, leading some tribes to ban it. However; still very popular with Iroquois tribes in New York, Ontario and surrounding areas
Popularity in the U.S. 1877 - First collegiate team started at NYU, and many teams followed suit quickly after. 1879 - John R. Flannery started United States National Amateur Lacrosse Association composed of 11 college teams and city clubs. 1879 - 4,000 people show up to see Ravenswood club beat the Baltimore Athletic club. 1881 - 1st intercollegiate tournament Harvard vs. Princeton (3-0 final). 1894 Crescent Athletic Club forms and becomes celebrated favorite for 40 years.
Lacrosse goes national and international 1904 - St. Louis. Lacrosse makes a debut in the Olympics. Canada wins defeating the St. Louis Athletic club team 1908 - Canada beats England in the Olympics in London. U.S. team unable to attend. Lacrosse is given international attention. However, Lacrosse is not seen in the Olympics again until 1928. 1932 - L.A. Olympics Largest game turnout ever at 80,000 to watch Johns Hopkins University defeat Canada.
1905 emergence of the USILL (United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse League) more clearly defines rules and regulations for college teams. After first two Olympic appearances, Lacrosse receives national press and international attention. 1927 - Reporter from the Baltimore sun calls the game “The fastest game on two feet.” A phrase still used today. 1926 - First women’s lacrosse team in Balt. By 1950 - 200 college, club, and high school teams.
1959 - Lacrosse finally reaches the west coast where the California Lacrosse Association was started. 1959 - The Lacrosse foundation (now U.S. Lacrosse) and The Lacrosse Hall of Fame set up as non-profits to keep the sport alive and honor its celebrities. 1967 - Creation of LWC. in 4y. increments. 1960’s - 1980’s - Lacrosse remains popular on the east coast of North America, and with some, mostly English speaking countries (Scotland, England, Australia, and Wales). But Lacrosse has been growing fast these past 20 years throughout the world.
Lacrosse in the NCAA 1971 - NCAA Lacrosse championship created. Top 12 Division 1 teams compete for championship. Gait twins, Paul and Gary compete in 1988-91 NCAA LC for Syracuse U. and give Lacrosse lots of media exposure. The famous “Air Gait” which is Lacrosse’s “Slam Dunk.” Gait brothers brought record crowds to Lacrosse games.
Modern Lacrosse The modern game of Lacrosse has evolved into four variations. Field Lacrosse, Indoor Lacrosse, Box Lacrosse and Women’s Lacrosse. Lacrosse is played with either 6, 10 or 12 people; 6 for Box and Indoor Lacrosse, 10 for Field Lacrosse and 12 for Women’s. The general rules are the same for all four types but there are small differences that make each their own.
Field Lacrosse Field Lacrosse was the first variation modeled after the Native American sport, although it has gone through many changes in the past 200 years. It is played with 10 men to a team, 3 forwards, 3 Mid-fielders, 3 Defenders and a Goalie. The game is played on a 110 yard by 60 yard field, and the objective is to put the ball (a through the other teams goal. The Goal is a 6’ by 6’ net, similar to the one used in Hockey.
Field Lacrosse The rules of Field Lacrosse are a mix of Soccer, Football, and Hockey. There is no Holding, Slashing, Tripping, Cross Checking, Unsportsmanlike Conduct, Unnecessary Roughness, Illegal Body Checking, Illegal Crosse or Equipment, Off sides, Stalling or Warding Off. Other than not committing these Penalties, the goal of Field Lacrosse is to put the ball in the Other teams goal.
Box Lacrosse Box Lacrosse is the second variation of Lacrosse, invented in 1930 to offset the costs of hockey stadiums. The pace is faster than Field Lacrosse, has more contact (players are allowed to use solid core Crosses) and is played with less people, 6 to a side with 18-24 players on a Team. The Field and Goal are smaller, the fields are hockey rinks that have been de-iced or converted to accommodate turf. Also the goals have been sized down to 4’ by 4’. The major rules that differ Box from Field Lacrosse is that the attacking team must shoot the ball within 30 seconds of gaining possession of the ball. Another rule variance is that there are 3 twenty minute periods instead of 4 fifteen minute quarters.
Indoor Lacrosse Indoor Lacrosse is very similar to Box Lacrosse except that there is less violence, and it is played in 4 fifteen minute quarters. The Equipment is the same as the other types of Lacrosse except for the sticks which must be hollow aluminum or Titanium. Indoor Lacrosse is more often played on Turf than Box Lacrosse which is predominantly concrete. The goal size and field size is the same as Box Lacrosse and many of the top players in Box Lacrosse, cross over to play Indoor.
Women’s Lacrosse Women’s Lacrosse was first recorded in 1890 at the St Leonards School in Scotland, the basic rules are like Men’s Lacrosse but are more true to the original native American game. But they have been evolving since the mid-1930s. The game is played with 12 players on each team, in two thirty minute halves. Each team is granted a 90 second timeout per half, which only can be taken after a goal is made.
Women’s Lacrosse The ball is started in the air instead of on the ground like men’s. There is almost no contact allowed with checking only permitted when it comes in contact with the persons Crosse. New rules were adopted in 2000, 2003 and then in 2005 to first add the center line or “Restraining Line”, in 2003 they adopted eye protection, and in 2005 they adopted hard boundaries.
Women’s Lacrosse Penalties for women’s Lacrosse is quite different than the men’s game. They receive cards to signify the penalty: A Green card given to the team captain is for delay of game A Yellow card is for a first time penalty resulting in a removal from the field for 5 minutes. A Red card is given as a result of either two yellow cards or one unsportsmanlike behavior ruling.
Equipment In Field, Box, and Indoor Lacrosse; each player is required to have a Helmet, Gloves, Shoulder pads and a “Crosse” or netted stick. There is less use of the protective gear in women’s Lacrosse, except for the Goalie who will often times add shin guards to the uniform.
Equipment There are 3 types of Crosse’s, the first most common is the “Short Crosse” which measures 40-42 inches, the “Long Crosse” measuring 52-72 inches and the Goal Keeper can have a Crosse ranging from 40-72 inches with a 15 inch net. They are usually constructed of aluminum or titanium for the shaft and plastic for the net. It does not matter where the Short or Long Crosse's are played on the field but there can be no more than 4 Long Crosses on the field at one time.
Lacrosse Looks forward Canada beat U.S. in this years LWC’s, breaking U.S. domination of the sport. Iroquois nation league consisting of 7 teams is avidly competing in world championships. They have placed 4th in the past 3 LWC’s(98, 02, and 06) Some are pushing for a place for Lacrosse in the Olympics but to no avail. The Olympics charter states that a game must be played by national teams in at least 75 countries. Currently there are only 16.