Presentation on theme: "Adaptation Strategies of Sub-Saharan Higher Education Systems to the Renewed Emphasis on their Economic Development roles. By Pascal S. Doh Higher Education."— Presentation transcript:
Adaptation Strategies of Sub-Saharan Higher Education Systems to the Renewed Emphasis on their Economic Development roles. By Pascal S. Doh Higher Education Group (HEG), School of Management University of Tampere, Finland
Background of Presentation Malawi, Cameroon, Zambia as early comers for HE in the PRSP of 2000s (Bloom et al, 2006) Policy Env. -The RRA Vs the K. economy. MDG + EFA Choice of Author: Cameroon Method: Qualitative (Case study) Theory driven: NIS, En. Univ + 3rd Mission Study Population: Policymakers & Academics Source: Interviews & Review of documents Objective: Perceptions + transformation processes Focus of Presentation: The Transformation Processes.
Cameroon: Country Characteristics Location: Between W. & C. Africa Population Relative stability Bilingual/Bicultural Country Position in K. Economy Index (Last 13 in 2009) Giant of Primary Secondary and HE in SSA Education: 20% of National budget Highly resource endowed & dependent Middle range as aids-dependent & middle income country (UNDP 2006, 35). Highly indebted poor country by 2006 Strong Donor involvement, including in HE
Xtics of the Higher Education Age : 50Age : 50 Participation rate of bn 7.2 & 10 (UNESCO)Participation rate of bn 7.2 & 10 (UNESCO) 8 State Universities (85%) + 65 Private HEIs (15%)8 State Universities (85%) + 65 Private HEIs (15%) Bilingual /Bicultural HE system Bilingual /Bicultural HE system Grossly Publicly funded systemGrossly Publicly funded system Governance: Gov’t Centralised + Acad OligarchyGovernance: Gov’t Centralised + Acad Oligarchy Underfunded postgraduate & ResearchUnderfunded postgraduate & Research Sparse & unsustainable grantsSparse & unsustainable grants Highly donor/aids-dependent for Research GrantsHighly donor/aids-dependent for Research Grants Sub-Regional leader in internationalisationSub-Regional leader in internationalisation Spear header of reform : Case of HE & poverty reduction + ProfessionalisationSpear header of reform : Case of HE & poverty reduction + Professionalisation
Background of Emphasis : Regional & National Economic role for HE in Cameroon Renewed trust in HE: A diversion + revolution from the Rate of Return AnalysesRenewed trust in HE: A diversion + revolution from the Rate of Return Analyses Also changed donor perspective about HE Also changed donor perspective about HE “Resources “ to “Knowledge” & an increasingly service-based economy: experiences from emerging & developed countries “Resources “ to “Knowledge” & an increasingly service-based economy: experiences from emerging & developed countries Perceptions of Respondents about new roles of HE From Resources to Knowledge: Boom no longer comes from traditional production (Cocao & coffee): Implications 1. The “daily preoccupations be embraced & translated into training programmes & more operational curricular” (SPD) 2.“HE should be resolutely open to the rest of the society” (SPD) 3. “a greater, more relevant, adaptable & employable graduates” (P1).
Cont. 4. University becomes strategic org. As a strategic org. “… would have to be capable of defining its future, putting in place its proper development strategies and be able to establish the link between economic progress, scientific and technical innovations and research, and to produce economically useful knowledge for the development of local economies (SPD 2010, 2). 5. Current role goes beyond mere supply of human capital. Graduates “..must be adapted to being the workers of knowledge that ‘the new economy’ demands” (SPD 2010). The University “.. contribute innovations & knowledge that will propel development (Q9) Universities become: “facilitators of innovations; products-innovation, process-innovation, social innovations, organisational innovations and training and certification innovations” (SPD 2010, 10).
Cont. 6 HE “should reflect the development status of the country, : The University should be in “…the business of understanding what poverty is, knowing the elements of poverty, researching the problems of poverty, building capacity to address poverty & also designing projects for effective implementation of poverty reduction issues & collaborate with partners: government, industries and the civil society in this area (R14). 7. “The University is not supposed to evolve in parallel manners with economic operators and structures” (Q8) Its activities have to be beneficial to industries (Q8). Question 1: What are the Effects of the Emphasis on the dynamics of the HE system
Observations 1.Curriculum ( Professionalisation ) + Applied R. 2.Governance +Funding patterns 3.Structural organisation 4.Cultures: (incentive) 5.Dynamics about the use of knowledge 6.Property & results ownership (IPR) 7.Tools and Infrastructures Question 2: What are the Ongoing Transformation from the emphasis on direct regional & national economic role?
1. Curriculum : Professionalisation Pol (6 dimensions ) Increasing the technological & professional components from 5% to 30 by 2025: UDP in reflection of the MDG/EFA : The SPTPCHE ( Teacher Training, Medicine, Engineering) Consolidating & expanding the capacities of traditional dev’t programmes (Agric, Fisheries, public works). *Regionally applied Establishments. ( Attaching curriculum & establishments to the economic DDs of regions). EG: 1Institutes of Fine Arts in a Culturally and touristic towns. 2. Institute of aquatic sciences in the most aquatic and fishing towns. Expanding the capacities of other market friendly programmes ( ICT, Mgt Business Adm. & ACC ). Development of a new sector of applied universities. Professionalising all programmes ( Professionalising the discipline, the faculty, the student)
2. Governance +Funding patterns Reconfiguration/ devolution of power/AutonomyReconfiguration/ devolution of power/Autonomy Ministry to universities (broaden financial bases & to connect with Socio-economic actors)Ministry to universities (broaden financial bases & to connect with Socio-economic actors) Central admin to Faculty/School): Vetting roleCentral admin to Faculty/School): Vetting role Faculty to basic operational units. Faculty to basic operational units. * university level MGT mostly assumes supervisory role: Ministry only regularises & formalises.* university level MGT mostly assumes supervisory role: Ministry only regularises & formalises. Belief in Autonomy ( Regulatory, Mgt Financial & Acad )Belief in Autonomy ( Regulatory, Mgt Financial & Acad ) Delegation of signature: Rectors no longer sole vote holdersDelegation of signature: Rectors no longer sole vote holders Reregulation: Changed form/disguised control: PCAReregulation: Changed form/disguised control: PCA Inclusion of Industrial officials in decision-making organs ( Council, Strategic Orientation Com, Interface Structures) + chairpersons appointed from non university circles Inclusion of Industrial officials in decision-making organs ( Council, Strategic Orientation Com, Interface Structures) + chairpersons appointed from non university circles
3. Structural organisation a)System and Internal reorganisation Expansion of the system’s capacityExpansion of the system’s capacity System differentiation ( perspectives on different types) System differentiation ( perspectives on different types) Res Vs teaching & applied Vs comprehensive institutions Res Vs teaching & applied Vs comprehensive institutions “Graduate School”, “Research Groups” & “Technology Poles ” “Graduate School”, “Research Groups” & “Technology Poles ” b) Program & degree structures. Professional BMD c) management and administrative structures. Office of Vice/Rector i/c Relations with business world Office of Vice/Rector i/c Relations with business world Consultancy offices & Strategic orientation committees (SOC) in faculties (to advise on the needs of the socio-economic operators)Consultancy offices & Strategic orientation committees (SOC) in faculties (to advise on the needs of the socio-economic operators) - Central business offices & grants admin offices.- Central business offices & grants admin offices. Hybridised Structures : -the University BoardHybridised Structures : -the University Board -Interface platforms -Interface platforms -SOC -SOC
4. Cultures: (the incentive/regulatory system) Change in referential doc ( Sectoral Pol Doc & St. Pl)Change in referential doc ( Sectoral Pol Doc & St. Pl) Align Strategic Plans & Research Policies to PRSPAlign Strategic Plans & Research Policies to PRSP Socio-eco impact in evaluation & promotionSocio-eco impact in evaluation & promotion Reduced hours for teachers whose loads include interaction with industry & eco operatorsReduced hours for teachers whose loads include interaction with industry & eco operators Compensation for 3rd mission activitiesCompensation for 3rd mission activities In crease partnerships with Economic OperatorsIn crease partnerships with Economic Operators Permanent University-industry charterPermanent University-industry charter Poverty Reduction Incubators Poverty Reduction Incubators Status for professionals from industriesStatus for professionals from industries
5. Knowledge for Economic development Perspective 1: “ Scientific K is abstract but K for regional or direct national dev’t is contextual ”Perspective 1: “ Scientific K is abstract but K for regional or direct national dev’t is contextual ” Implications1: Applied Research ( Much in Perspective) -Need for more applied Research Labs, More funding: -More non-gov’t sponsors (industries) “if research is sponsored by an industry, the industry is waiting for the results….”(Q 13). Perspective 2: Difficulties with single disciplines Implication2: Multidisciplinary Approaches “ more and more, the world is moving towards interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary cooperation…” (R10). “….each time we design programme, we ask about the ENV of the programme’s activities. If the ENV requires a component from another programme we integrate it (Q8).
Cont. The tendency is “to spread out and be multidisciplinary to be able to bring the simple solutions to the questions that plague the population” R17. R17 The multidisciplinary theory is a plus, it adds more value to Research, then equal opportunity & the participation of many…”. “Everybody has a word to say”. “One may cite the six blind men who went to visit the elephant and each described it in his own ways” R Ownership: Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) 1.“Nothing or very little ever came up that needed discussions about intellectual property rights, ‘sharing this or that’.” (R19). 2. “Before, our universities were doing research as research & not for use. E.g, on mathematical & physical theorems. These are not the things to worry about IPR but when you start working on & about the society, in partnership, issues of ownership naturally emerge (P5).
Cont 3. Well, those who fund research obviously expect to own the results. Whether they exploit them or not is the subject of agreement that is reached at the time funding is provided. (R16). 7. Tools and Infrastructures ICT as a tool for everything in HE More Classrooms for more access and Quality HE More Research Labs, especially Applied Research Question 3: How do the transformation processes measure up to the theoretical frameworks in HE? Case of NIS, Ent Uni & 3rd Mission for developed countries: Finding: Most of the challenges are systemic: Lack of a NIS
Cont -Weak Linkages & weak interactions between actors, elements & institutions concerned with economic dev’t -Universities can do more if the systemic perspective & connection is strong: R12 develops devices, manufactures prototypes for rural electrification. R16. Does pharmacological validation. They get the results but no institution to take them further. - Institutional fragmentation -Weak system-DD side for the use of knowledge workers (Case of the Professionalisation ) What related authors say!!! “ the IS gets complete when the supply side for the skills is matched by demand side (Camoli et al. 2009)”. Consequence: Risk of over education and brain drain
Cont. How Rich Countries Got Rich & Why Poor People Stay Poor “for the successful cases, it is a result of the simultaneous provision or flow of better educated people with situations where the jobs and skills are in demand. “…nations that address only the supply side of educated people end up educating for migration” (Reinhert 2007, ) “…nations that address only the supply side of educated people end up educating for migration” (Reinhert 2007, ) -Lack of Social Capital (Trust) & Understanding: Industries & SMEs …rarely approach universities to solve their problems. Whereas universities believe that they are up to the tasks. The local ENV may not understand the importance of research, does not support university researchers & collaborate in research activities. Similarly, the politicians do not seem to understand (Doh 2012, 289).
Use of Entrepreneurial University Frameworks (Clark Etzkowitz + Etzkowitz & Zhou 2008) Observation - Insufficient integrated entrepreneurial culture (IEC) -Lack of discretionary funding bases (DBF), -Lack of Corporate Led Entrepreneurialism -Poor knowledge capitalisation (KC) - Lack of interdependence, -Poor ability to exploit the opportunities of the environment.
Cont. Peculiar Weaknesses Sustainable funding for Professionalisation Pol.Sustainable funding for Professionalisation Pol. General low funding, esp. research & Postgrad General low funding, esp. research & Postgrad Lack of Nat Strategy for Univ. research (UR)Lack of Nat Strategy for Univ. research (UR) Lack of status for URLack of status for UR Lack of central funding for URLack of central funding for UR Structural separation bn university & institutesStructural separation bn university & institutes Low R & D potential of local firms.Low R & D potential of local firms. Absence of facilitators: Eg Autonomous MediatorsAbsence of facilitators: Eg Autonomous Mediators Unsustainable status of projectsUnsustainable status of projects The absence of opportunities.The absence of opportunities. Lack of cooperation bn R. groups in & bn Univs.Lack of cooperation bn R. groups in & bn Univs. Too many Res groups with overlapping themesToo many Res groups with overlapping themes
Major Recommendations The Need for Systemic Framework: Case of NIS.The Need for Systemic Framework: Case of NIS. NIS should increase the visibility of the role of HE/Universities Perhaps Quadruple Helix not Triple Helix: To reflect developing countries Perhaps Quadruple Helix not Triple Helix: To reflect developing countries Need for Community Innovation systems ( ie in addition to NIS & Regional Innovation system)Need for Community Innovation systems ( ie in addition to NIS & Regional Innovation system) Improving entrepreneurial & 3 rd Mission PracticesImproving entrepreneurial & 3 rd Mission Practices Stimulate entrepreneurial Cultures: Not yet well diffused Stimulate entrepreneurial Cultures: Not yet well diffused Structural design (differentiation & diversity) Structural design (differentiation & diversity) K economy as a new rationale for increase fundingK economy as a new rationale for increase funding New pact : HE, Govt & Society ( Cloete et al 2011 also)New pact : HE, Govt & Society ( Cloete et al 2011 also) Need to improve 2 nd Mission for 3 rd MissionNeed to improve 2 nd Mission for 3 rd Mission Discretionary & Performance-based fundingDiscretionary & Performance-based funding Building on Researcher-Led EntrepreneurialismBuilding on Researcher-Led Entrepreneurialism
What can we learn from this study? The Settling of a 2nd Revolution of Economic Dev’t Issues of Poverty reduction in some contexts Limits of the traditional university : Need for transformation to open up the University The Changing but Global Xter of HE: the orientations are similar & moving in identical directions. “Similar factors & causes (shrinking funding, the K economy, globalisation & accountability), worldwide, are producing the same responses of 3 rd mission & entrepreneurialism (Doh 2012). If these 3 rd Mission & Entrepreneurial frameworks are those used for regional & national dev’t then developing countries need them more (Etzkowitz & Zhou 2008) Importance of integrated Economic Dev’t Plans. Case of the PRSPs (GESP) in Cameroon
Continue HE remains a key sector. It intervenes in all sectorsHE remains a key sector. It intervenes in all sectors Knowing what you want: Importance of revolutionary thinkingKnowing what you want: Importance of revolutionary thinking An evolution towards the Triple Helix: Good but not contextual enough (Doh 2012) An evolution towards the Triple Helix: Good but not contextual enough (Doh 2012) Partnership Reinforces concerns about Ownership (IP)Partnership Reinforces concerns about Ownership (IP) Legitimisation of student-directed entrepreneurialism Legitimisation of student-directed entrepreneurialism Every university can be involved in direct socio-eco dev’t activities without being entrepreneurial.Every university can be involved in direct socio-eco dev’t activities without being entrepreneurial..universities & their units should be broad in perspective… Surprises can come from any unit ….universities & their units should be broad in perspective… Surprises can come from any unit … Entrepreneurialism/connections with socio-economic partners depend more on creativity : creative use of K.Entrepreneurialism/connections with socio-economic partners depend more on creativity : creative use of K.