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© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 Basic Concepts of Sport
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sport – the Natural Religion Novak (1976) describes sport as a natural religion based on qualities and characteristics fundamental to the experience How is sport a religion? Rituals, i.e., coin toss Costumes Sense of power outside of one’s control People who enforce rules Teaches principles, i.e., courage
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. What is Leisure? Can be viewed as an attitude of freedom Often distinguished from work activities Viewed also as discretionary time left- over after work
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. What is Play? Sport is a manifestation of play Characteristics of play represent a continuum such as: Free Uncertain Governed by rules Separate Economically unproductive Governed by make-believe Play is not trivial, but rich with psychological, sociological, and historical meaning
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Caillois: 6 characteristics of play Free (voluntary behavior) Separate (conducted in places where the time and space limits are fixed), e.g., let us go to the gym and play BB for half an hour Uncertain (evenly matched competition) Economically unproductive Governed by rules Governed by make believe
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Differences Between Child’s Play vs. Adult Play Play is the most basic behavior in young children Children’s continuum includes: turbulence, gaiety, spontaneity, diversion Adults’ continuum includes: calculation, subordination to rules, contrivance and ritual One is not better than the other, however, as children grow and develop, their continuum goes toward the adult side
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Games Physical skill Strategy Chance
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Games vs. Sports There are no exact distinctions between the two terms Three important areas of the concept “game”: 1.Games derive from play 2.Games involve competition 3.Game outcomes are based on skill, strategy or chance Not all games are sports but all sports are a game
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Games vs. Sports, cont’d Sports are games involving skill and strategy Sport games have primary and secondary rules Sport games are classified into four categories: 1.Territory or invasion games 2.Target games 3.Court games 4.Sector games
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Territory/Invasion Games Goal is to invade the space of the opponent to score. The use of goals or end zones are prevalent. Games can vary in skill: use of arms, legs, stick implements. Examples: football, ice hockey, soccer, rugby
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Target Games Primary objective is to propel an object with great accuracy toward a target or targets. Examples: golf, bowling, horseshoes
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Court Games Primary objective is strategically propel an object in such a way that it cannot be returned by an opponent. Examples: tennis, badminton, handball, squash
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sector Games Primary objective is for one opponent to strike an object so as to elude defenders. Examples: baseball, softball, cricket
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Competition Concept Rituals and traditions are easily seen Strives to achieve an objective Involves a state of rivalry
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Roles that Contribute to Sports as an Institution Codification of rules Officials or referees Organization and structure of sport teams, i.e., NCAA Record keeping to measure performance Dissemination of information to the public, i.e., newspaper
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Aesthetics of Sports One tries to find the beauty in sports, form sports, and other sports Form sports: performers consciously work on achieving a physical form that is aesthetic Examples of qualities are: harmony, form, dynamics, flow, gracefulness, rhythm, poise
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Aesthetics of Sports, cont’d Carlisle (1974) has suggested four types of beauty in other sports: Well-developed physique Well-designed play or execution of the maneuver Dramatic competition Unity of an entire performance
© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Ethics in Sports How people behave or conduct themselves in particular situations, i.e., games or sports Fair play: how a competitor behaves before, during and after competition 19 th Century concept from England, i.e., Arnoldism Concept still permeates in our society today Rule violations are meant to be enforced by officials or referees Sports still can build character and teach important life lessons However, sport can be corrupt and has the ability to teach negative lesson in life
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–1 Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes and Job Satisfaction, and its effects at workplace.
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© 2006 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Athletic Training Management Chapter 8 Risk Management.
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