Lineage Father Al-Saadiq Mother Hameeda From Maghrib Grandfather Al-Baaqir Al-Kadhim
Al-Kadhim’s Early childhood Born in 128 Hijrah, in Ab’waa (outside Medina), and Al-Saadiq was 45 Yrs old by then Was born 4 years before Benu Umayya were toppled Benu Abbas take over and rule the Muslim Ummah Al-Kadhim is loved by his father very much Is tutored by his father Al-Saadiq early on Memorized the Quran and learned a great deal about Islam quite early
Al-Kadhim In his Boyhood Al-Kadhim learned about how the house of Ali was demolished in a move to expand the Prophet’s Masjid Enjoyed going out with his father Al ‑ Saadiq to the Prophet's Mosque He often saw his father praying, saying Du'aa, and crying, especially at the Prophet's Mosque Al-Kadhim became the questioner, the investigator, the researcher, and his questions increased in complexity. Boyhood was during early Benu Abbas rule
Al-Kadhim in his Boyhood When Al-Kadhim was 6 years old, his oldest brother Isma'eel died. They were very close to each other Father mourned the loss of Isma’eel very much Al ‑ Kadhim became aware of the revolts that finally got rid of Benu Umayya In particular he was aware of the euphoria at the toppling of Benu Umayya and the new Benu Abbas initial rule He also heard of Al ‑ Saffah and the blood shed at his hands
Al-Kadhim in his Boyhood Al-Kadhim finds out that: Al-Aammah are common people who blindly follow the beliefs in the general public Al-Khaassah are the loyalist, the people who learn at the hands of Ahlul Bayt the teachings of Muhammad. Al ‑ Kadhim was keen about the voluminous books left by Imam Ali and their immense value. Al ‑ Kadhim was keen about the voluminous books left by Imam Ali and their immense value. Since his brilliance was far above others, Al- Kadhim absorbed a vast amount of knowledge from them.
Al-Kadhim in his teens Al-Kadhim observed that there were many intellectual centers in the Islamic world. Al-Kadhim observed that there were many intellectual centers in the Islamic world. They were centers of learning in Medina and Mecca (Hijaz), Kufa, Basrah, Egypt, and the emerging Qum Many scholars were sought after, but the majority referred to Ahlul Bayt's narration which was called the Golden Chain of Narration. He often heard his father Al ‑ Saadiq saying: My narration is the same as that of my father who narrated from his father up to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
About Al-Mansoor When Al-Kadhim asked about Al-Mansoor, Al-Saadiq said: 1.Initially Al ‑ Mansoor was stabilizing his regime by using a show of force 2.Then he labeled Imam Al ‑ Hasan in a repulsive manner 3.He also labeled our followers in a bad way, meaning to silence them 4.He had summoned me several times, to interrogate me that I had no aspirations against him 5.He rounded up better than 100 of the descendants of Imam Al ‑ Hasan, incarcerated them categorically, then collapsed the walls of the building on them to die. 6.Secret agents abound
Al-Kadhim Reflects At age of 19 Years Al-Kadhim reflected: he had spent much of his teen years in the company of his father, participated in the Institute's group discussions of various subjects, worked with his father at the grove to earn their living was frequently at the Masjid Al ‑ Nabawi performing Salat and reading Du'aa. Those were years of imparting knowledge to him and the essential elements to form the framework for his future works. Those were years of imparting knowledge to him and the essential elements to form the framework for his future works. But the Institute has halted: Due to prevalence of Al ‑ Mansoor's spying agents against its students and participants Al-Mansoor was a highly suspicious Khalifa
Al-Kadhim is the Imam Al-Saadiq was 65 years old when he died in 148H Before his death Al-Saadiq gave a will to his son Al-Kadhim: Recommending emphasis to serve Allah, piety, perfection of character, and good works in the society. Recommending emphasis to serve Allah, piety, perfection of character, and good works in the society. In addition Al-Saadiq left a Special Will naming, 1) Al- Mansoor, 2) the Governor of Medina, 3) his oldest son Abdullah, 4) his wife Hameeda, and 5) Musa Al- Kadhim to be the heirs.
In his twenties Al-Kadhim’s Imamah started when he was 20 years old Imamah means a designation (Nass) by the Almighty sent down to Muhammad (pbuh) through Jubra'eel, then passed down from one Imam to the subsequent one. When Musa Al-Kadhim was named to be the Imam, Al- Saadiq gave him the trust of the Corpus of Knowledge that came down from Ali to each Imam. When Musa Al-Kadhim was named to be the Imam, Al- Saadiq gave him the trust of the Corpus of Knowledge that came down from Ali to each Imam. Though beforehand he referred to the books and guarded them protectively, Imam Al-Kadhim was now not only in possession of them but in charge of them. Though beforehand he referred to the books and guarded them protectively, Imam Al-Kadhim was now not only in possession of them but in charge of them.
Ismah Emphasized Ismah: Ayah of Tat’heer: Surah 33 : Ayah 33. Ahlul Bayt are to be obeyed, not just revered; Imamah: was of immense importance. A designated Imam was Ma'soom, i.e., safeguarded by Allah from: 1.Religious error, 2.Sin, and 3.Forgetfulness. Those who ignore the Imamah will have ignored a basic pillar in their faith.
The Golden Chain of Narration Thousands of Hadiths were narrated and quoted through Al-Kadhim He often said, "My Hadith is the Hadith of my father, and his is the Hadith of his father, up to Ali, who directly narrated the Hadith from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)." This is called the Golden Chain of Narration. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science.
The Golden Chain of Narration Each quoting his father and forefathers up to the Prophet Ali, quoting Muhammad (pbuh) Al-Hasan and Al-Husain quoting Ali Zainul Abideen quoting Al-Husain Al-Baaqir quoting Zainul Abideen Al-Saadiq quoting Al-Baaqir Al-Kadhim Quoting Al-Saadiq
Golden Chain of Narration: (so far) Ali Al-Husain Zainul Abideen Al-Baaqir Al-Saadiq Al-Kadhim Al-Hasan
Chain of Quoting Hadith and other Information The Golden Chain of Narration
Corpus of Knowledge Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: Quran in chorological order Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) Ah’kaamAl-Jafr 1.White Jafr: Prophets and early times 2.Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam
Corpus of Knowledge Al-Kadhim stored the Corpus of Knowledge in a special room None was allowed in the room except He and Al-Ridha The books had become fragile with age: the ink fading and the fragile Parchment paper had to be handled with care The books were too precious to be exposed to damage
Contemporary Khulafaa During his Lifetime, Imam Al-Kadhim was contemporary to the Following Rulers of Benu Umayya and Benu Abbas Benu Umayya: Marwan the Ass Benu Abbas: Al ‑ Saffah Al ‑ Mansoor, brother of Al-Saffah Al-Mahdi, son of Al-Mansoor Al-Haadi, son of Al-Mahdi Al-Rashid, son of Al-Mahdi
In his twenties Numerous Piety- minded communities were already in existence; headed by its leader called Aalim. They were each active and many were highly influential. To mention just a few there were: The Shi'a (Imamah-Asserters), School of Ibn Abbas, School of Ibn Omar, Murji'ah,Khariji,Mu'tazila,Jabriah,Qadariyah,Jah'miyyah Along with less important others
Beginning of his Imamah The difficult circumstances surrounding him 1.Al ‑ Mansoor had established a network of informants and secret agents, mainly against Ahlul Bayt. 2.Times of caution and discretion were extremely important. Al-Kadhim had to take precautions 3.Therefore he asked most of his followers to: Meet with him in discrete manner, At unusual times of the day, Even in the middle of the night, So as not to raise suspicion of Al ‑ Mansoor
In Al-Kadhim’s twenties Al-Ridha is born Al-Ridha was loved and tutored by his father As he grew up Al-Ridha showed signs of brilliance, and learned a great deal at the hands of his father, be it Quran, Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqh or other sciences. As he grew up Al-Ridha showed signs of brilliance, and learned a great deal at the hands of his father, be it Quran, Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqh or other sciences. For about 10 years Al-Mansoor deploys informants especially against Ahlul Bayt The Institute of Ahlul Bayt shrinks and suffers because of these measures
The Institute suffers Over 75 years the institute had continued to operate during tough or accommodating times It had grown speedily during Al ‑ Baaqir's Imamah, then exponentially during Al ‑ Saadiq's times. By Al ‑ Kadhim’s Imamah, Al ‑ Mansoor introduced severe measures of surveillance (informants). Due to these limitations, the Institute suffered and became a fraction of yesteryear. However, the activities did not cease, and Al ‑ Kadhim continued to teach but with an eye on the political situation.
Al-Kadhim’s Person Work: often worked with his hands as had his father Al ‑ Saadiq and the previous Imams before him Appearance: He had a radiant countenance, a cheerful look with repose. Discourse Capacity: People held him in high esteem and were very attracted by his discussions. Discourse Capacity: People held him in high esteem and were very attracted by his discussions. He was especially renowned for quoting the Hadith of the Prophet (pbuh). It is said that the number of such quoted Hadiths through his narration exceeded all the quoted Hadiths the subsequent Imams rendered.
Similarity with Zainul Abideen Al ‑ Kadhim used to do Sujood frequently. This led to callosities of his forehead and the tip of the nose Used to perform Salat to an excessive extent, more so Salat of Tahajjud. Used to cry often out of awe and reverence to Allah. Used to fast quite often during the year. To perform Haj or Omrah, Al ‑ Kadhim went on foot accompanied by his family, Used to go at night to distribute food, flour, and money to people in need without anyone knowing about him (until he was detained). It is said that Imam Al ‑ Kadhim was instrumental in freeing about 1,000 slaves during his lifetime.
Al-Kadhim in his thirties Al-Mansoor dies and his son Al-Mahdi is the Khalifa, who was religious and less suspecting Less trouble with informants and spies for about 10 years Khalifa requests Al-Kadhim to meet him in Baghdad to reassure him that he would not be a threat to him The Institute is reactivated and revitalized Al-Kadhim builds a suburb of Medina called Surba Surba becomes locality to meet and discuss
Al-Kadhim in his forties 168H: When Khalifa Al ‑ Mahdi (son of Al ‑ Mansoor) died, Al ‑ Kadhim was 40 years old, and had been the highest Islamic figure for 20 years. 168H: When Khalifa Al ‑ Mahdi (son of Al ‑ Mansoor) died, Al ‑ Kadhim was 40 years old, and had been the highest Islamic figure for 20 years. Many of the students who had learned at the hands of Al ‑ Saadiq continued to study at the hands of Al ‑ Kadhim. Many of the students who had learned at the hands of Al ‑ Saadiq continued to study at the hands of Al ‑ Kadhim. Many outstanding scholars finished their studies and wrote a number of books. Many outstanding scholars finished their studies and wrote a number of books. Al-Ridha was 20 years old by then and had been very active in the affairs of the Institute of Ahlul Bayt.
Character Ethics: scrupulously applied the Islamic ethical conduct Al ‑ Kadhim was renowned for being: 1.The most religious of men in his time, 2.Most knowledgeable in Shari'ah and Fiqh, and 3.Most generous and the noblest. 3.Most generous and the noblest. 4.His nobility, virtue, rectitude, and integrity were proverbial. 5.Al-Kadhim talked when need be, was more often silent unless asked, answered questions when directed to him, and he was known to be a non-complainer. He did not even protest when arrested without charges and taken to be incarcerated.
Character II Generosity: Al ‑ Kadhim was hospitable, famous for the small bags of money; he gave the bags of money to: 1.The needy and disadvantaged, 2.To aid those in debt, 3.To help those who were under financial pressure, 4.To assist the ones who had a catastrophe in which they lost their livelihood. Al ‑ Kadhim’s generosity was legendary. Requests: Al ‑ Kadhim implored the adherents and loyalists to work in professions independent of the politics. He implored them to excel in administration and management, and to be dynamic in all aspects of life.
Character III Passive Resistance: Al ‑ Kadhim recommended to his devotees not to directly deal with the government Karbala: He encouraged his adherents to: 1.hold Majlis on the anniversary of Karbala, 2.visit the tomb of Imam Al ‑ Husain which by now had become a shrine, 3.understand the endeavor of Imam Al ‑ Husain, and 4.understand and emulate the works of Imam Al ‑ Husain. Imamah: Al ‑ Kadhim emphasized the Imamah: that the Imamah is an essential element of the Islamic faith, without which the faith is disjointed. And that the Imams were: 1.safeguarded by Allah from: Sin, 2.safeguarded by Allah from: Religious error, and 3.safeguarded by Allah from: Forgetfulness;
Islamic Movements at the time SHI'A, IMAMAH-ASSERTERS AL-MAALIKI AL-MU'TAZILA IBN OMAR IBN ABBAS JABRIAH QADARIYAH MURJI'AH JAH'MIYYAH AL-KHARIJI AL-GHULAAT
Al-Kadhim in his fifties Clash of Islam versus the rulers in the name of Islam was inevitable. Haroon Al-Rashid was the culprit In 179H this confrontation resulted in: 1.The arrest of Imam Al ‑ Kadhim without any charges, 2.And putting him in detention where he died after 4 years of imprisonment. This was at a period when the Ummah stretched from Spain to certain parts of India, including all of North Africa, Syria Proper, Iraq, Persia, Arabia, Afghanistan, part of India, and Central Asia.
In his fifties By the Khilaafah of Haroon Al ‑ Rashid the Institute of Ahlul Bayt had grown to such an extent that it had held extreme power. By the Khilaafah of Haroon Al ‑ Rashid the Institute of Ahlul Bayt had grown to such an extent that it had held extreme power. 1.The Institute held a large sway and continued to be uncompromising with Benu Abbas and expose the un ‑ Islamic activities of the Khalifa and his courtiers. 1.The Institute held a large sway and continued to be uncompromising with Benu Abbas and expose the un ‑ Islamic activities of the Khalifa and his courtiers. 2.The Institute had grown so influential and had such a vast following that its formidable underground network frightened Al-Rashid. 2.The Institute had grown so influential and had such a vast following that its formidable underground network frightened Al-Rashid. 3.The informants of the Khalifa, on the other hand, were still around. Their reports brought forth distrust and suspicion. 3.The informants of the Khalifa, on the other hand, were still around. Their reports brought forth distrust and suspicion. 4.For the Khalifa it was a dilemma as to what to do.
Al-Kadhim and the Powers of Oppression 2. Al-Rasheed Frightened of him 3. Al-Kadhim is Detained in Basra 4. Is moved to Baghdad 5. Detained for 4 years 6. Spends his Time in prayer 7. Dies of Poisoning delivered by Ibn Shaahik 1. Vast Spiritual Power Al-Kadhim Al-Kadhim in his Fifties
Al-Kadhim in his fifties II Al-Rashid was returning from Haj, when he stopped in Medina. 1.Al-Rashid visited the tomb of Muhammad (pbuh) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, forgive me for what I intend to do.” 2.Then gave order to arrest Imam Al-Kadhim without charges and 3.To take him away from Medina to Basrah, where Al- Kadhim was to be in detention for one year. 4.This took place in 179H. Al-Kadhim was 51 years old.
Al-Kadhim in his fifties III Being apprehensive that the Imam might be rescued by his followers, Khalifa Al-Rashid did the following: 1.Ordered two camel ‑ domes to be prepared, in one of which he seated the Imam and sent him to Basrah escorted by a sizeable military detachment. 1.Ordered two camel ‑ domes to be prepared, in one of which he seated the Imam and sent him to Basrah escorted by a sizeable military detachment. 2.The other dome was empty and it was sent to Baghdad with an equal number of soldiers. 2.The other dome was empty and it was sent to Baghdad with an equal number of soldiers. 3.This was a move to confuse prospective rescuers and distract the attention of people by keeping the place of imprisonment unknown. The family of Al-Kadhim didn’t even know that he was taken away
Al-Kadhim in his fifties IV Seeing Al-Kadhim constantly praying with Du'aas of thanks to Allah, the governor of Basrah asked to be relieved from his sinful duty of detaining Al-Kadhim Al-Kadhim was transferred to Baghdad, and put under detention for more than a year with Ibn Rabi' being in charge who also wanted to be relieved of this horrible duty. Al-Rashid transferred the duty to Al-Fadhl Ibn Al- Barmaki, who held Al-Kadhim in honor and made his stay very comfortable. By the fourth year of imprisonment, Al-Kadhim was weak, pale, and probably undernourished, he developed fever. The fever continued, the Imam became weaker and weaker and by the third day he died, still imprisoned.
Al-Kadhim in his fifties V It is narrated that Al-Kadhim was poisoned through planning of the father of Al-Fadhl Ibn Al-Barmaki by way of the chief of police, Ibn Shaahik. Ibn Shaahik was the ruthless and stone ‑ hearted Chief of Police of Haroon Al-Rashid. Al-Kadhim died away from home and family, in prison, at the age of 55 years. Al-Kadhim died away from home and family, in prison, at the age of 55 years. Though he was four years in prison, Al-Kadhim was never heard to have complained or even criticized the impulsive ruler, Haroon Al-Rashid. Though most probably Al-Kadhim was in detention for 4 years, some authors claim that he was imprisoned for 7 or even 10 years
In the mean time Al-Ridha takes over the works for Islam in his father’s absence This continued for several years The Institute was not in the highlights anymore due to unsafe political environment Worry about the fate of Al-Kadhim was wide spread The family as well as the people missed Al- Kadhim very much
When he died Year of 183H: Al-Kadhim died at the age of 55. When Al ‑ Kadhim died the authorities (sensing accusations) called on some high ranking people to witness for themselves that Imam Al-Kadhim had died a natural death. When Al ‑ Kadhim died the authorities (sensing accusations) called on some high ranking people to witness for themselves that Imam Al-Kadhim had died a natural death. After the funeral rituals, the funeral procession was stopped at the bridge in Baghdad, Al-Kadhim’s face was shown to the people to convey the fact that he had died a natural death Al-Kadhim was buried in Benu Hashim graveyard in Baghdad. Previously Al-Kadhim had designated his son, Al ‑ Ridha, as the subsequent Imam, and he gave him a will containing a treasure of wisdom, and handed him the books constituting the Corpus of Knowledge which Imam Ali had written before.
A Counsel to followers “Acquire deep understanding of the Deen [Islamic religion] for by that is the key to Inner Insight, the perfection of worship, the means to high station and to high ranks in both this world and the eternal one. The superiority of a Scholar in Fiqh over a ritual worshipper is like the sun outshining the stars. It is less likely that Allah would accept good deeds from a person who neglects to study his belief. تفقهوا في الدين فإ ن الفقه مفتاح البصيرة وتمام العباده والسبب إلى المنازل الرفيعه والرتب الجليلة في الدين والدنيا، وفضل الفقيه على العابد كفضل الشمس على الكواكب، ومن لم يتفقه في دينه لم يرض الله له عملاُ
A Counsel to followers Grant yourself a portion of the earthly world by enjoying its desires from the lawful and honorable things, and without going to the excessive. Make use of it to help you fulfill your Islamic duties, for it is reported that: “He is not one of us who neglects his earthly world for the sake of the Next world, nor who neglects his Next world for the sake of the earthly one. إجعلوا لأنفسكم حظاً من الدنيا بإعطائها ما تشتهي من الحلال، وما لا يثلم المروءه وما لا سِرْفَ فيه، واستعينوا بذلك على أُمور الدين، إجعلوا لأنفسكم حظاً من الدنيا بإعطائها ما تشتهي من الحلال، وما لا يثلم المروءه وما لا سِرْفَ فيه، واستعينوا بذلك على أُمور الدين، فإنه روي: ليس منا من ترك دنياه لدينه، أو ترك دينه لدنياه
Translation of Ziyarah (Visitation) Peace be on you, O Devotee of Allah, and the son of His Devotee! Peace be on you, O Decisive argument of Allah, and the son of His argument! Peace be on you, O Disciple of Allah, and the son of His Disciple! Peace be on you, O Confidant of Allah, and the son of His Confidant! Peace be on you, O Light of Allah in the darkness of the ignorant! Peace be on you, O Guide who shows the right path! Peace be on you, O Symbol of religion and piety! Peace be on you, O Treasurer of the wisdom of the Prophets! Peace be on you, O Treasurer of the wisdom of the Messengers! Peace be on you, O Vicegerent of the earlier guardians, Peace be on you, O Depository of the evident revelations!…
For Details Go to: Islamicbooks.info then choose: Series of Islamic Books: Life of Ahlul Bayt Vol. III
Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim