Presentation on theme: "PRESENTATION OF BREAD CULTURE AND FERMANTATION PREPARED BY 2000 EVLER ANATOLIAN HIGH SCHOOL."— Presentation transcript:
PRESENTATION OF BREAD CULTURE AND FERMANTATION PREPARED BY 2000 EVLER ANATOLIAN HIGH SCHOOL
A BRIEF HISTORY OF FERMANTATION Bread, as we know it today, is a product of a long process which began with the discovery of grain agriculture and its origin goes back to the first ages. Most probably flat bread or hard biscuits made of baked grain or barley mixture were eaten in storage. Then, the human being discovered that dough was fermented by the unknown reasons. Egypt and Sumer civilizations were more likely to begin to use fermentation. According to the scientific studies it lies back to the years which discovered microscope. But, for the real discovery it was necessary to wait till 1837. Pasteur proved that the living organisms caused the fermentation. Later, he also proved that the environment without oxygen is necessary for fermentation industrial production began in the 19. century in Australian and till these days rapid technological development have existed.
WHAT IS THE FERMENTATION? Microorganisms also need energy to live like people. Microorganisms that ferment produce this energy without using this oxygen. If the compound produced is alcohol, it is called fermentation of alcohol; if it si acid; it is called fermentation of acid. These products are used to make bread, wine and yoghurt. The microorganisms that used in fermentation of dough are the species of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. They produce alcohol and carbon dioxide interacting starch of dough. Because the carbon dioxide is gas, it makes dough fermented. Alcohol evaporates during the bake of bread. In short, anaerobic respiration is; - Lactic – acid fermentation - Ethyl alcohol fermentation
a-Laktik asit fermentasyonu:. b-Etil alkol fermentasyonu:
Fermentation Sector in Turkey Beforehand it was exported Pak – Maya establishment was founded in 1973 Öz – Maya establishment was founded in 1988 Mavi – Maya establishment was founded in 1989 by BURN & PHILP Holding
Yeast Types Used in Dough Fermentation Instant Dry Yeast Instant Dry Yeast is a technological product used at hone. It is directly spreaded on the flour or it is used at the beginning of kneading Active Dry Yeast It can be used 12 months only if it is kept in a cool and dry place. While ısing active dry yeast the water used to melt, it shouldn’t be too hot or too cold. It should be warm. Wet Yeast Wet Yeast is directly mixed with flour without melting, because its economical and practical to use. Bakers prefer to use this type of yeast.
EXCEPT FOR THE FERMENTATION, BREAD ADDITIVES ARE ALSO USED.
Enzymes Alfa – amilaz enzimi can be used to strenghten the fermentation of dough. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) It is used for the purpose of improving the quality of dough and bread. It is experimented that when vitamin C 2,5 gram / 100 kg. is added volume increases 20 cm cube more during the fermentation. Generally 25 – 75 mg vitamin C is used for one kg.
Diabetes (Saccaros, Maltos, Fructus, glucose) Diabetes affect the dough, speed of fermentation and gas formation. Herbal Oil 1-Oil increase the volume of bread 2-It keeps it soft to a considerable extend. 3-Oil makes the surface of the bread much more crsip 4-The colour of the surface becomes much more bright and polished
Emulgators *They increase the water absorvation level of flour *It makes dough easly kneaded *They increase the dough’s gas capasity during the fermentation and the last fermentation can be shortened *They prevents dough from deflating