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Chapter 11, Section 3 The War at Home

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1 Chapter 11, Section 3 The War at Home
Objectives: 1.Explain how business and government cooperated during the war. 2.Show how the government promoted the war. 3.Describe the attacks on civil liberties that occurred. 4.Summarize the social changes that affected African Americans and women.

2 How did the power of the government expand?
Convert economy… Business and government collaborated Congress gave Wilson direct control over much of the economy Fix prices Regulate war related industries

3 Over Here Organizing the Economy War industries Board (WIB)
Bernard M. Baruch (Wall Street speculator) Conversion of industrial plants to wartime needs Manufacture of war materials Purchase of supplies for the US and the Allies

4 What was the function of the War Industries Board?
Increase production…. Reduce waste…. Set production quotas…. Allocate raw materials….. Bernard Baruch

5 What was the function of the Fuel Administration?
Monitored coal supplies Rationed gasoline and heating oil Gasless Sundays Lightless nights Daylight savings time

6 The Business of War Corporate profits nearly triple
Larger businesses do even better Du Pont quadrupled profits Farm production increases 20-30% Economic legacy of corporate and government cooperation Entire industries and economic sectors are organized, regulated, and subsidized

7 Labor and the War Labor shortage causes government to recognize labor unions Higher wages and a better standard of living resulted Unions become a junior partner in mobilizing the economy President of the AFL Samuel Gompers Skilled white males Building trades, railroads, and miners

8 Samuel Gompers and “business unionism”
President of the AFL Skilled, white males Collective bargaining… Concrete gains – bread and butter issues Served on the National War Labor Board

9 How did the National War Labor Board prevent labor discord?
Wm. Howard Taft and Frank Walsh 1917 – wages had not kept up with inflation – thousands of strikes Worked to prevent work interruption Interventions.. Higher wages Shorter hours Overtime 8 hr day

10 Labor and the War Gompers and the AFL’s patriotic support of the war
National War Labor Board (NWLB) Arbitrated labor disputes to avoid work stoppages Right of workers to unionize Resulted in improved wages and the 8-hour work day

11 Labor and the War Union membership rises
NWLB establishes the practice of government intervening on behalf of labor Labor shortages in the SW ease immigration restrictions on Mexican workers Early example of the growing importance of cheap Mexican labor to the region’s economy

12 What was the function of the Food Administration?
Encourage greater food production Reduce consumption Voluntary Meatless days Wheatless days Porkless days Sweetless days Herbert Hoover

13 How did the government finance the war?
US spent $33 billion 1/3 taxes Progressive income tax War profits tax Excise tax Liberty Bonds – $23 billion Reserve banks expanded $ supply Debt $1 billion  $20 billion

14 Over Here Food Administration (FA) Herbert Hoover
Imposed price controls Raised prices on grain to increase production No rationing of food Persuasion High prices Voluntary controls “Hooverizing” – food conservation “meatless Tuesdays” “Food will win the war”

15 “Hooverizing”



18 How were the hearts and minds of the American people mobilized?
Committee on Public Information George Creel Goal: promote the war 100 million pieces of literature explaining the causes and meaning of the war Posters, slides, newspaper advertising, films 75,000 “Four Minute Men”

19 Selling the War Creel’s 3 themes: Consequences:
America is morally unified Crusade for peace & freedom Hatred of all things German Consequences: Abandonment of Old World ties and become “unhyphenated Americans” Attacks on German Americans, radicals, and peace activists





24 Financing the War Cost $33 billion Three ways: Liberty Bonds
Income taxes replace excise and customs levies Increase the number of Americans paying income tax Liberty Bonds Raises $23 billion Federal Reserve Expanded money supply with easy borrowing National debt grows from $1 billion to $20 billion

25 Support for Liberty Bonds
Sec. of the Treasury William McAdoo Liberty Bond Booths were set up by the Boy/Girl Scouts

26 WW I Liberty Bond

27 Liberty Bonds There were four issues of Liberty Bonds:
Apr 24, 1917 Emergency Loan Act authorizes issue of $5 billion in bonds at 3.5 percent. Oct 1, 1917 Second Liberty Loan offers $3 billion in bonds at 4 percent. Apr 5, 1918 Third Liberty Loan offers $3 billion in bonds at 4.5 percent. Sep 28, 1918 Fourth Liberty Loan offers $6 billion in bonds at 4.25 percent. Interest on up to $30,000 in the bonds was tax exempt.

28 Four Minute Men Douglas Fairbanks, movie star, speaking to a large crowd in front of the Sub-Treasury building, New York City, to aid the third Liberty Loan, in April 1918

29 What is a consequence of propaganda?
Anti-German hysteria German music and literature banned German language not taught Harassment of German Americans Name changes: Sauerkraut – liberty cabbage, German measles – liberty measles, Dachshund – liberty puppy, hamburger – liberty sandwich, frankfurter – hot dog

30 Labor Strife 1919 more than 4 million workers conduct 3,600 strikes
Causes: Modest wage increases wiped away by inflation and high prices for food, fuel, and housing End of government control on industry, allowed many employers to withdraw their recognition of unions Continuation of 12-hour day Demobilized servicemen

31 Labor Strife Seattle shipyard strike ends with federal troops occupying the city. Boston police strike ends when Gov. Calvin Coolidge calls in the Nat’l Guard and fires the entire force. Midwestern steelworker strike fails when Elbert Gary uses black strikebreakers, armed guards, and propaganda.

32 Eugene Debs Gave speech defending anti-war protesters
Sentenced to 10 years Ran for Pres. From jail Served 32 months Pardoned by Harding in 1921

33 Labor and the War Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) or Wobblies
Organized unskilled labor Denounced capitalism Opposed entry into the war Espionage Act crackdown on radical labor movement marks the beginning of political repression

34 Industrial Workers of the World
Radical union Organized unskilled labor – all inclusive Denounced capitalism Opposed US entry into war as a “capitalist war” Became a target of business and gov’t Espionage Act 300 arrested Files confiscated End of radical labor movement Beginning of repression

35 How did the Espionage Act control dissent?
Key tool for suppression of anti-war sentiment Outlawed: aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment, causing insubordination in the armed forces Penalties… Exclude treasonous material from the mails Bureau of Investigation….

36 The Espionage Act Espionage Act of 1917 attacks antiwar sentiments
20 yrs in prison & $10,000 fine Aid to the enemy, obstruction of recruitment, or causing insubordination Postal service stops treasonous newspapers & magazines Enforcement leads to the creation of the FBI

37 The Sedition Act Amendment to Espionage Act added in 1918 outlaws:
“any disloyal, profane (contempt), scurrilous (vulgar), or abusive language intended to cause contempt, scorn, contumely (rudeness), or disrepute” to the government, Constitution, or flag. 21,000 cases combined aimed at socialists, radical labor, & pacifists Eugene Debs 10yrs (serves 32 mo.)

38 How did the Sedition Act control dissent?
Outlawed any “disloyal, profane, scurrilous or abusive language intended to cause contempt, scorn, contumely, or disrepute” to the government, Constitution, or flag More than 2,000 cases Controlled socialists, pacifists, radical labor

39 Suppression of Dissent
Schenck v. United States Justice Holmes, restriction of speech is Constitutional when it “creates a clear and present danger.” Debs v. United States Affirmed guilt Abrams v. United States Convicts 4 Russian immigrants denouncing US intervention in the Russian Revolution

40 Were these acts constitutional?
Schenck v. U.S. 1919 Congress could restrict free speech if the words “are used in such circumstances and are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger. “ Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Upheld Schenck’s conviction for obstructing the draft


42 How did the Great Migration increase racial tensions?
300,000 to 500,000 African Americans moved to northern cities Labor shortages in the North Better economic opportunity Less racial violence


44 Economic Opportunity Between some 300,000 to 500,000 leave rural South for the North Labor shortages Few receive high-paying skilled positions Most are construction laborers, teamsters, janitors, or porters

45 Racial Violence Faithful support of the war beforehand
Chicago 1919 Lake Michigan beach Lasted 2 weeks 23 African Americans were killed 15 whites died +500 injured Faithful support of the war beforehand Disillusionment and a new militant spirit grows quickly NAACP leads fight against bigotry and injustice

46 Racial Violence Lynching in the South Not limited to the South
Two of the worst race riots in US history occur in the North: East St. Louis, Illinois 1917 Unions refuse to accept blacks Owners using black labor against Union demands 200 African Americans killed

47 Black disillusionment
Heightened sense of race consciousness and activism NAACP – national conference on lynching – sought federal legislation against

48 Race Riots East St. Louis – 1917 Chicago – 1919 Whites attacked blacks
200 blacks killed Black labor had been recruited to keep union demands down Chicago – 1919 White gangs hunted African Americans 2 weeks 23 African Americans killed – 15 whites

49 Women at Work Opportunity for higher-paying industrial jobs
Women in Industry Service (WIS) is created Est. general standards for treatment Improving working conditions Pay continues to suffer and is ½ of men’s in the same industries Lose industry jobs after the war 1920, working more white-collar occupations than manufacturing or domestic service

50 What new opportunities did the war offer women?
Women moved into jobs previously held by men… Continued traditional jobs …. Red cross volunteers Bolstered support for women’s suffrage amendment 19th Amendment


52 Reality of women’s work?
Accepted goals – not enforced Received roughly ½ the pay as men for the same work Lost jobs at the end of the war Accelerated women’s work in traditional fields Led Congress to est. Woman’s Bureau in the Dept. of Labor

53 How did the war affect women?
Women in Industry Service – Mary Van Kleeck Formulated standard for treatment of females 8 hr. day Equal pay for equal work Rest periods and meal breaks Restrooms No night work Minimum wage

54 Woman Suffrage New wage workers Highly visible volunteer work
Selling bonds Saving food, organizing benefits National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Carrie Chapman Catt Patriotic support of the war

55 Woman Suffrage National Woman’s Party Catt urges “war measure”
More radical and militant than NAWSA Alice Paul Catt urges “war measure” Passage of the 19th Amendment

56 Women’s Suffrage… Battle for the vote prior to WWI…
National American Women’s Suffrage Association – Carrie Chapman Catt… Alice Paul – National Women’s Party… “The fight for democracy must begin at home.” 1917 Wilson – suffrage amendment “vital to the winning of the war.”

57 Prohibition… Moral reform… Reaction to the war…
18th Amendment – illegal to buy, sell, manufacture, or transport alcoholic beverages – Jan. 1919

58 Prohibition Drinking seen as a source of working class problems
Family violence Unemployment Poverty Anti-German feelings Conserve grain 18th Amendment = worthy moral reform Stimulates growth of organized crime

59 Influenza Worldwide pandemic killing 20 million
Sept 1918 sweeps military bases and eastern cities 350,000 Americans die in 10 months Congress appropriates $ to suppress the spread Aid from Red Cross and local volunteers




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