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Unit 4: Connecting Hemispheres Samantha Greiss. Renaissance.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4: Connecting Hemispheres Samantha Greiss. Renaissance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4: Connecting Hemispheres Samantha Greiss

2 Renaissance

3 Vocabulary Renaissance –T–Time of recreation, recreation of the Middle Ages Humanism –T–The focus on human potential and achievements Secular –C–Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual manners Indulgence –A–A pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin Golden Age –A–A time of peace and prosperity with little to no wars; advances in arts, sciences, literature, and economy Patron –A–A person that financially supports artists Perspective –A–An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface Printing Press –A–A machine for reproducing written material by pressing paper against arrangements of inked type

4 IMPORTANT INFORMATION TO KNOW The Renaissance came right after the Dark Ages It was considered a golden age because of the advancements in art and literature Humanism was very popular during the Renaissance Indulgences were given to forgive sins during the Protestant Reformation Art was valued by many Patrons supported artists

5 Some Artists Were

6 Michelangelo Born on March 6, 1475 Became an artists apprentice at age 13 Educated in Rome From Florence Last name is Buonarroti Preferred to sculpt Also painted Earliest work was pieta Designed St. Peter’s Basilica Painted ceiling of Sistine Chapel Died at age 89

7 Donatello Born in 1386 Rest of name was di Niccolò di Betto Bardi From Florence Worked on sculpting Bronze David Statue First free-standing nude since ancient times Died at age 77

8 Raphael Born on April 6,1483 Last name was Sanzio From Rome Father was a painter Worked for Popes Famous for pictures of Mary and child Painted The School of Athens Died at age 27

9 Leonardo Da Vinci Born on April 15, 1452 From Florence Illegitimate Painted Sculpted Invented many things (i.e. The Da Vinci Code) Had plans for helicopter, hang-glider, bicycle, etc. Notebook was written in mirror image Died at age 67

10 Effects of the Renaissance Led to world exploration Art and literature is significantly changed Printing press led to the spread of literacy and education Led to questioning of Church teachings (because of humanism) Contributed to the Protestant Reformation of the 1500’s

11 Review What were some results of the Renaissance? What belief became popular during the Renaissance? What was the time period before the Renaissance called? Humanism The Dark Ages

12 Review Who were some artists of the Renaissance? What were they famous for? Leonardo Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Donatello Da Vinci Code, pictures of Mary and child, designing St. Peter’s Basilica, Bronze David Statue

13 Reformation

14 Vocabulary Protestant Reformation –S–Sixteenth century movement calling for religious change which led to the founding of new Christian churches Reform –A–A change for the better Protestant –A–A member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation Annul –T–To cancel or set aside Predestination –T–The doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved

15 Information Dr. Martin Luther King Junior posted the “95 Thesis” stating everything wrong with the church That list started the Protestant Reformation The list was copied and shared with the help of the printing press Complained about indulgence

16 Review Who wrote the “95 Thesis”? What did the “95 Thesis” say and what did it cause? What invention helped spread the “95 Thesis” around? Dr. Martin Luther Kind Junior It stated all the things wrong with the church, including indulgence, and it caused the Protestant reformation. The printing press.

17 China, Japan, and Europe Interact

18 Vocabulary Dynasty – A series of rulers from a single family Dynastic cycle – The historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties Decade – 10 years Mandate of heaven – In Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority Cultural Diffusion – The spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another Empire – Political unit in which a number of people or countries are controlled by a single ruler Ethnocentrism – Prejudice based on the promise that one’s own culture or way of life is superior to all other people’s cultures or ways of life

19 General Information Trade between Japan, China, and Europe occurred over a few decades Europeans explored the east China rejected European outreach Japan limited western contacts

20 Japan Had “closed country” policy Allowed the Tokugawa shoguns to monopolize profitable foreign trade Made Japan self-sufficient Tokugawa leyasu defeated rivals Completed unification and founded Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa Shogunate brought approx. 2 more centuries of stability, prosperity, and isolation

21 China China had dynasties – Ming Dynasty – Qing Dynasty Only the government was allowed to conduct foreign trade because China wanted to keep the outside influence low Manchus placed restrictions on foreign trade through – Special ports – Tribute having to be paid – Kowtow rituals Dutch followed Chinese rules British didn’t follow the rules Because of this, the Chinese accepted the Dutch as trading partners and rejected the British

22 Europe Had improved technology to help explore Had astrolabe, magnetic compass, triangular sails, and caravels Immediate cause of Columbus’s voyage – Tension between Portugal and Spain Long term cause of Columbus’s voyage – Opens Americas for exploration and colonization Portugal benefitted from his voyage because it created a direct trade route to Asia Spain set up trading posts in Asia because they claimed the islands of the Philippines to expand their empire The Dutch made an alliance with the British, who had a great naval force, to gain control of the Indian Ocean Trade

23 Review What European technology helped them to explore? What was the immediate cause of Columbus’s voyage? What was the long term cause? Astrolabe, Magnetic compass, Triangular sail, Caravel Tension between Portugal and Spain Opens the Americas for exploration and colonization

24 Review How did the Dutch gain control of most of the Indian Ocean Trade? What about Columbus’s voyage was beneficial to Portugal? Spain set up trading posts in Asia because…? They made an alliance with the British who had a great naval force It created a direct trade route to Asia from Portugal They claimed the islands of the Philippines to expand their empire

25 Review Why were the Dutch accepted by China as trading partners but not the British? What were the restrictions made by the Manchus on foreign trade? What were the two main dynasties in China at the time of Columbus’s voyage? Because the Dutch followed the Chinese rules and the British didn’t Special ports, Tributes had to be paid, Kowtow rituals were performed Ming and Qing

26 Review Why was the government the only thing in charge of foreign trade? What did Tokugawa leyasu do? What was important/significant about Tokugawa Shogunate? Because China wanted to keep outside influence low Defeated rivals, completed the unification of Japan and founded Tokugawa Shogunate Brought about 2 more centuries of stability, prosperity, and isolation

27 Review What was the “closed country” policy? Why was it important? Allowed the Tokugawa Shoguns to monopolize profitable foreign trade. It made Japan self-sufficient.

28 Spanish Colonial America

29 Vocabulary Encomienda – the system, instituted in 1503, under which a Spanish soldier or colonist was granted a tract of land or a village together with its Indian inhabitants Creoles – a person born in the West Indies or Spanish America but of European, usually Spanish, ancestry Conquistador – one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century Mestizo – a person of racially mixed ancestry, especially, in Latin America, of mixed American Indian and European, usually Spanish or Portuguese, ancestry, or, in the Philippines, of mixed native and foreign ancestry Mulatto – the offspring of one white parent and one black parent: not in technical use Peninsulares – Among the American-born in Mexico

30 Information Columbus went on a voyage in an attempt to find another route to Asia for spice trade He didn’t know about America He sailed across the ocean and landed in America He traded with the Native Americans and went back to Spain His voyage was funded by the king He went on one other voyage The ships he sailed to America in were the Niña and the Pinta. America became colonized by Europeans

31 Review Who “discovered” America and why? Where was he from? How many voyages did he go on and who funded the voyages? What were the names of the ships? Columbus. Because he was looking for an alternate route to Asia to trade spices. Spain Two. The king of Spain. The Niña and the Pinta.

32 Slave Trade

33 Vocabulary Continent – The largest body of land Cultural Diffusion – The spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another Culture – A person’s unique way of life, as shown by its tools, customs, arts and ideas Sikh – Blend of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam Favorable Balance of Trade – The relation between the merchandise exports and imports of a country Triangular trade – A pattern of colonial commerce in which slaves were bought on the African Gold Coast with New England rum and then traded in the West Indies for sugar or molasses, which was brought back to New England to be manufactured into rum

34 Information on slave trade Slaves were traded through the triangular trade The most common race people had as slaves were Africans The triangular trade involved Africa, South America, and North America Slavery become one of the most popular forms of labor in the Americas Slaves were mistreated, judged, and literally worked to death at times In the mid to late 1900s, slavery started to come to an end

35 Review What three places did the triangular trade involve? How were slaves treated? When did slavery start to come to an end? Slavery became one of the ____ popular forms of _____ in the ________. most laborAmericas Africa, North America, and South America Very poorly; they were mistreated, judged, and sometimes worked literally to death In the mid to late 1900s

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