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Events of the Early 19 th Century: A Timeline & Value Assigned Activity.

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Presentation on theme: "Events of the Early 19 th Century: A Timeline & Value Assigned Activity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Events of the Early 19 th Century: A Timeline & Value Assigned Activity

2 The Acquisition of the Louisiana Territory Thomas Jefferson, “strict constructionist” though he was, made an exception to his governing philosophy when he authorized the largest real estate transaction in American history at the time. At $15 Million, he paid just a few cents per acre for all of Louisiana.

3 judicial review The case of Marbury V. Madison was an achievement for the Supreme Court. It revolved around the so-called “midnight appointments” which John Adams carried out at the end of his time in office – attempting to undermine Jefferson’s ability to appoint judges to the federal courts. (Jefferson refused to deliver the appointments to some justices.) In his decision, Chief Justice John Marshall concluded that although he did not have the power to compel Jefferson to deliver the appointments, he did have the right of judicial review – the power to interpret the Constitutionality of laws. Satisfied that he had gotten his way on the issue, Jefferson demurred on the point. And the Supreme Court became an independent branch of the government. The Case of Marbury V. Madison

4 The Death of Alexander Hamilton As arrogant and difficult to get along with as he was, Alexander Hamilton really didn’t deserve this end. Aaron Burr was a notoriously unscrupulous individual, and his ambition would eventually destroy him. But he killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel beforehand. Dueling was illegal at the time, but often engaged in when men’s reputations were at stake. Usually, gentlemen fired their shots into the ground or into the air. Burr shot to kill.

5 The Corps of Discovery: Lewis & Clark The Lewis and Clark Expedition was one of discovery and imperialist intention. Meriwether Lewis’ journals – collecting information on the flora, fauna, and geography of the region are a valuable collection of information on the environment of the Great Plains before Europeans began settling the prairies. But just as important was the political message delivered to Native Americans along the way: The United States of American now ruled this land.

6 The First Steamboat Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston both played a role in creating this revolutionary vessel. Prior to the invention of the steamboat, rivers were one way streets in terms of trade. After the steamboat became popular, crops and resources could be shipped in either direction. When Abraham Lincoln was a young man, rafts used to descend the Mississippi, for example, would be sold for firewood in New Orleans. Now, river traders could sail back to their point of origin quickly.

7  According to the Constitution, the earliest the international slave trade could legally be banished was twenty years after the ratification of the new government. It would preserve the ghastly and inhumane “Middle Passage” for another twenty years. Happily, the Congress was at least able to accomplish that much. Twenty years after the ratification of the Constitution, the international slave trade ended in the United States. Nevertheless, illegal importation of slaves from Africa continued and a growing domestic market for slaves expanded. The International Slave Trade Ends in 1808

8 The Burning of the White House It’s OK, because Dolly Madison saved the portrait of George Washington that was hanging over the mantle! Right? After Napoleon had been defeated, the British could focus their attention exclusively on the United States during the War of 1812 – and the catastrophe on the Potomac resulted. The burning of the White House might have been much worse for the city, but an enormous storm system – tornadoes, lightening, torrential rain – scattered the British and put out most of the fires.

9  This was a meeting of New England Federalists which took place at the end of the War of 1812, and articulated a variety of regional demands.  The group proposed eliminating the three-fifths compromise and insisting on a supermajority of the Congress to approve new territories and states.  The group was hesitant and resentful over the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory.  They was nonplussed over the Embargo of 1807 and concerned over its precedent.  Radical members of the convention called for secession from the Union. The Hartford Convention

10 The Acquisition of Florida Florida was controlled by the Spanish during the first part of the 19 th Century. Unreformed Native American tribes, privateers protected by the Spanish, and intrigues made it a constant source of concern and conflict for Americans. It also served as a safe haven for runaway slaves, and many Southerners assumed that the Spanish played a role in slave uprisings and disturbances. When John Quincy Adams successfully acquired the territory in the Adams-Onis Treaty, many of these concerns were put to rest.

11 The Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise: 1.Missouri entered the Union as a slave state. 2.Maine entered the Union as a free state. 3.A line at 36° 30’ was created from the southern border of Missouri. Above that line all future territories and states would be free; below the line all future states and territories would allow slavery.

12  “As a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, … the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers... The Monroe Doctrine is Issued

13  Andrew Jackson won the popular vote, but no candidate won enough electoral college votes to secure victory. When the election went to the House of Representatives, what Jackson would later term a “corrupt bargain” resulted in the Presidency for John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay’s ascension to the position of Secretary of State. The Secretary of State position was widely viewed as the stepping stone to the Presidency. Jackson was enraged at the bargain. The Disputed Election of 1824

14 The Erie Canal – by way of the Hudson River – connected New York City with all of the port cities of the Great Lakes. The Opening of the Erie Canal

15  There were no Federalist Presidents after John Adams – and it is important to note that neither President who is called a Federalist – Washington and Adams – embraced the name. After Jefferson was elected his Republicans controlled the office until the end of the 1820s. The Federalist Party became a regional apparition during this period – centered in New England but not exclusively so. After the Hartford Convention the party fell into decline and it never really re-emerged. Certainly the rise of Andrew Jackson to power in the 1820s indicated that the run of the Federalist Party was over. The Death of the Federalist Party?

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