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1 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD H. M. FAHMY Taken Partially from the net

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9 Research Question: The research question is the single most important part of the scientific method. Every part of your project is done to answer this question. The research question is sometimes formed as a statement and is called the "Problem" or "Problem Statement."

10 Hypothesis: The hypothesis is an "educated guess," formed as a statement, that you propose to be the answer to the research question. An educated guess is based on some prior knowledge.

11 Experimental Design: Plan an experiment in which you can test your hypothesis.

12 Observation: When you interact with your experiment, you are using your senses to observe. Does it have a smell, make a noise have color, etc.? Collect Data: As you observe your experiment, you will need to record the progress of your experiment. Data can be whatever you observe about your experiment that may or may not change during the time of the experimentation. Examples of data are values in pH, temperature, a measurement of growth, color, distance, etc.

13 Data: The data are the values written down as the experiment progresses.

14 Charts & Graphs: When at all possible, illustrations of data are advisable. They create a professional appearance and convey a great deal of information. Examples include: Bar Graph, Pie Chart, X & Y axis Graph, Histogram, etc.

15 Journal: All scientists keep a record of their observations in some form of a journal. The journal will begin with the date and time the experimenter collects the data. Sometimes data will include environmental values such as humidity, temperature, etc. Entries must be written clearly and with detail of description so that another scientist can read the journal, simulate the conditions of the experiment, and repeat the experiment exactly.

16 Conclusion: The conclusion is a summary of the research and the results of the experiment. This is where you answer your research question. You make a statement of whether your data supported your hypothesis or not. You may have data that supported part of your hypothesis and not another part. You may also have data that did not support your hypothesis at all. In this case, you may explain why the results were different.

17 THE REPORT H M FAHMY

18 Report Concept Communication Non written communication Verbal communication Oral communication Written communication Report Report types Scientific report Arts report Managerial report

19 Elements of Communication in Reports Diversity of report according to the target and reader. The report is the media of communication between both writer and reader. The use of an adequate language in a report by the writer. The report should always meaningful and deals with a defined problem.

20 Report Writer Subject of Report Report Reader Descriptive Expression Symbolic Expression Schematic and Statistic Presentation Transfer of Report Through the Visual Channel Feedback of Reader ( Show the degree of understanding of reader to the subject ) Modification of Report and Re-writing

21 Factors Affecting the Communication Effectiveness of a Report Writer Report “ Sender ” Reader Report ” Receptor” Report Content Feedback Impact 1.Language and the right to pick up a word that give one meaning. 2.Should be easy to follow. 3. Concise ( abridged) short and to the point. 4.Target should be very clear. 5.Vocabulary well applied rules, no language mistakes good editing 6.Use bullets, short sentences. Word should be understandable. 7.The sender or writer should have a wide knowledge about subject The receptor “ Reader” should have a degree of knowledge about the subject and understands the bases of the communication. The report should contain signs, diagram charts, notation and statistical figures and should be understandable by both the reader and the writer. It is the response of the reader of the report from which the writer senses the impacts of his report on this specific reader.

22 IMPORTANCE OF A REPORT - The report will help the "management" to identify how to have an oversight on the premises status it is regarded as an important tool of control and follow-up -it also helps management evaluation of the magnitude of achievements. -To identify deficiencies and weaknesses. -Helps management to plan objectively. -Helps to connect work of the institution with the external business -Helps to connect business and the activities within the institution or within the branches of the institution.

23 The Report is a Form of Communication in Either Horizontal or Vertical Levels It facilitates the flow of plans – decisions – instructions from management levels to executive level. it facilitates the flow of new ideas – proposals – complaints – implementation rates from lower levels to higher ones. It ease the coordination between different departments in a premises. A report should help in the transfer of suggestions derived of consultation units in a certain department to the executive management system.

24 Are Reports from Different Management Levels similar ? Top management Middle management Executive managers Executive management Type of Report Explanative Exceptional Demonstrative Concise to point Semi-detailed reports Detailed reports Schematic Representation Showing the Relation Between Managerial Levels and Reports Report Movement Quaternary Monthly Weekly Daily G.M

25 Types of Reports Reports are Derived According to the Field of Action as Follows 1.Trend Reports. 2. ٌ Reconnaissance Report. 3.Reports on Conclusion. 4.Explanatory Reports (classification reports ). Classification according to direction. 1.Internal Reports. 2.External Reports. Classification according to duration. 1.Periodic Reports. 2.Special Reports. 3.Exclusive Reports. Classification according to managerial Posts. 1.Planning Reports. 2.Regularity Reports. 3.Orientation Reports. 4.Control Reports. Classification according to target.

26 Scientific Reports Related the Masters and Philosophy Doctorates Classification According to Miscellaneous Activities Important Types of Reports Finance ReportsMarketing Reports Reports of Purchase And Storage Employment Reports 1.Salaries. 2.Average Salaries. 3.Relation Between Actual Work Hours and Expenses. 4.Statistical Studies on the Satisfaction Factors of Employees. 1.Periodic. 2.Sales Billing. 3.Daily Work Program. 4.Old customer. 5.New Customer. 6.Purchase Order. 7.Periodic Reports on Purchasing. 8.Reports on Expenses. 9.Reports on Sales Expenses

27 The definition of scientific research 1-Careful examination of the information or the discovery of new relationships and the growth of current knowledge and verified. 2-It is the attempt to find solutions for to the problems that affect and worry the human being and the society. 3-The collection, recording and analysis of data and information and facts about a particular problem and identifying alternative solutions and to selection of the best solution in light of surrounding circumstances. 4-The definition of scientific research varies according to the types of research domains, and goals and the means and tools and therefore it is preferable not to worry in finding or deducing definitions but one should confine itself on the quality of research and new characteristics.

28 RESEARCHES TYPES OF RESEARCHES AND CURRICULA CLASSIFICATION Historical researchApplied ResearchTheoretical Research These are descriptive researches that study events of past phenomena that vanished through time. Observations are usually on remains of the subject such as remains of a monument.. This kind of research considers usually a) Study of past production, economy in the past …. b) applied to old era such as ( the vapor era - the industrial era – the computer era.) These are researches that should solve actual problems and projects solutions for the future ones. They contain plenty of statistics and numerous investigations. Laboratory experiments is the main tool of investigation in applied scientific researches. Target: these are researches that search in assumptions, theories, laws in the surrounding and are the bases of all sciences. These types of researches are used in all scientific fields such as chemistry, physics, math, astrology, geology, medicine …etc and in social sciences such as : sociology, philosophy… etc.

29 Problems FactsInformationData Combining Registration Analysis Selection of Alternatives. Search for reasons and fact. Assumptions, hypotheses. Modeling and Testing.

30 The characteristics of scientific research Accuracy Objectivity Forecasting The possibility of proofing or verification of the validity of the results The adequacy of controlling conditions and factors influencing variables in the search and results

31 The specifications and characteristics of scientific research The exact diagnosis and the proper description of the situation or problem, then to deduce assumptions and hypotheses to overcome the problem. The use of scientific methods to test the validity of these assumptions and find solutions to this problem. To explanation and the justifications (rationale) of the solutions that have been reached to solve the problem using the logic of reason and without prejudice To prove the validity of these justifications in reaching a solution and, if possible, to develop a model of the problem and to apply the results and examine their validity.

32 Characteristics of Scientific Research Accuracy Research subject. Research tools. Research data Objectivity Title of Research. Research goals. Results accomplished by the researcher. Organization Logical ordering modeling Scientific ethics : ideas Styles Ethics ideas References Different references an resources Linguistic rules Types of pages. Choosing expression. Continuity

33 The advantages of the scientific method in the search 1-The prompt investigation behind the real causes of the events and phenomena. 2-The high accuracy in the collection of information from multiple reliable sources and not to rush into decision making without obtaining reliable and results of well identified sources. 3-Sufficiency of the evidences to reach decisions or the right solutions, using defined standards, and appropriate and substantive methods for the evaluation of the collected data. 4- Scientific research relies on the use of experimental tools, modern techniques and statistics for supporting the findings.

34 The researcher Chooses the Subject of its Research (problem) From Its area of specialization. The phenomena and problems of society. Imagination. Personal experience. And also can identify five other major sources of the selection process : Supervisors of the research-Reference in area study-The sense of the problem- Directed research from institutions.

35 2 – Basis of Choice of Research Problem 1. Availability of facilities that are requested for the research. 2.Importance of the problem itself. 3.The extend of agreement of this problem with the tendencies of the researcher. 4.Considering of the time limits. 5.The possibility of obtaining approval for this particular research. 3 – Characteristics of Research objectives 1.Ease. 2.Understandable. 3.Precise 4.Straight forward 5.Realistic and could be performed

36 4 – Defining the previous study of research 1.Using the public and private libraries. 2.Scanning the previous research using computers (electronic survey). 3.Scanning the different networks of information and the internet. 4.Revising the previous research lists in the department, college and within field of specialization. 5.Consulting some member of teaching staff that are working in the same field/ 6.When listing some previous research we should mention: a) The name of the researcher. b) Researcher problem. c) Methodology of research. d) Important results. e) Year of publishing and editors of the research. 5- The use of previous theories and models suitable for the research Student should know the theory, models 6- Specifying question and obligation of the research 1- Simple 2- Understandable 3- Precise 4- Straight forward 5- Realistic and could be performed

37 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

38 PLAN Introduction of Research Objectives of Research Motivation of Research Terminologies Types of Research Scientific methods of Problem solving / Research process Criteria for good Research Problems encountered by Researchers

39 INTRODUCTION What is meant by research? “Search of knowledge” “It is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on specific topic” According to Oxford Dictionary (1952, p1069), “A careful inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge” Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusion; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

40 The definition of scientific research 1-Careful examination of the information or the discovery of new relationships and the growth of current knowledge and verified. 2-It is the attempt to find solutions for to the problems that affect and worry the human being and the society. 3-The collection, recording and analysis of data and information and facts about a particular problem and identifying alternative solutions and to selection of the best solution in light of surrounding circumstances. 4-The definition of scientific research varies according to the types of research domains, and goals and the means and tools and therefore it is preferable not to worry in finding or deducing definitions but one should confine itself on the quality of research and new characteristics.

41 Characteristics of Scientific Research Accuracy Research subject. Research tools. Research data Objectivity Title of Research. Research goals. Results accomplished by the researcher. Organization Logical ordering modeling Scientific ethics : ideas Styles Ethics ideas References Different references an resources Linguistic rules Types of pages. Choosing expression. Continuity

42 The advantages of the scientific method in the search 1-The prompt investigation behind the real causes of the events and phenomena. 2-The high accuracy in the collection of information from multiple reliable sources and not to rush into decision making without obtaining reliable and results of well identified sources. 3-Sufficiency of the evidences to reach decisions or the right solutions, using defined standards, and appropriate and substantive methods for the evaluation of the collected data. 4- Scientific research relies on the use of experimental tools, modern techniques and statistics for supporting the findings.

43 OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH To gain familiarity with a phenomenon To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else To identify the causual relationship between variables

44 MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work Desire to be of service to society

45 SOME TERMINOLOGIES Data: Measurement of records of facts made under specific conditions Hypothesis: tentative assumption of the study or expected results of the study Independent variable: The part of the experiment that the researcher is manipulating; also called experimental or treatment variable.

46 SOME TERMINOLOGIES Dependent variable: The effect of the Independent variable Population: A total number of subjects which they abide the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

47 HYPOTHESES 1.Usually takes the form of a number of variables. 2.Variables are characteristics of the chosen target to be studied, such as : 1 - Students degree. 2 – Students attendance. 3 - Waiting time for the bus. 3.It used to indicate changes of social status or an identified social factor such as :" age, gender, income”. 4.The changing value of a variable is a phenomenon that differs from ant individual to another and is a key element in the analysis of : A-Causation. B-Process measurement. C-Research design.

48 VARIABLES DEPENDENTINDEPENDENTQUANTITATIVEQUALITATIVE

49 The independent variable was related to a phenomenon which is based on facts and evidence. The dependent variable was the variable that affected occurs or disappears organ of the independent variable A Independent variableThe dependent variable independent variables : Example : the problem of divorce : 1.Incompatibility in social terms. 2.The difference in education. 3.Age difference. 4.Problems. Dependent variables : 1.The housing problem. 2.The controversy over the children during the divorce and after the divorce. 3.The problem of maintenance. Some of the views added a third type of variables and intermediate variables. AXB Examples: 1 - Feeling concerned. 2 -The degree of stress. 3 - Mental illness. B

50 Variables Qualitative Quantitative Descriptive: 1.Hair color. 2.Address. 3.Social level. 4.Car’s color. 5.Nationality. Defined by number : 1.Students grades. 2.General budget ContinuousDiscrete Possibility of switching between qualitative and quantitative

51 SOME TERMINOLOGIES Review: A research paper that is a critical evaluation of research on a particular topic. Research proposal: A formal preparation that includes introduction, review of literature and proposed method of conducting study.

52 TYPES OF RESEARCH 1.Descriptive research 2.Analytical research 3.Applied research 4.Basic research 5.Quantitative research 6.Qualitative research 7.Conceptual research

53 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Surveys & fact finding enquiries of different kinds Purpose is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. Researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening.

54 Planning of Research Library research :where these studies rely on a Literature survey on the subject of research and the use of logic and analysis of the obtained references, many of these research studies are theoretical research known as office studies where the researcher reads the old and modern references on the subject and analyses them carefully. Field research: these studies rely on the collection of samples outdoor, the researcher goes down to the field and collects data from a group or from a sample of the population using tools such as : observation, interview and questionnaire. Exploratory research :is a reconnaissance or scouting as the name indicates. The researcher explores the circumstances surrounding the event, and revealed aspects and dimensions. Sometimes this type of studies is known as “ Formulative ".This type of research helps the researcher and his colleagues in the formulation of the problem of research and in preparation of the drafting precise discussion at a later stage. they also assist researchers in a research essay to assume hypotheses to solve the problem.

55 SUBDIVISIONS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Survey research The case study Job analysis Observational research Correlation study Comparative study

56 Concept of Survey The term " survey " has been borrowed from the field of natural Sciences. The term survey land is to determine its area and know its characteristics, surveying is the phenomenon to determine the nature and characteristics of knowledge. Surveying is an important tool used in the exploratory and descriptive research. The survey is known as the scientific study of the conditions, needs and problems in order to provide a program for reform. Survey research can not be applied in the historical and evolutionary studies interested in the past or in the link between the past and the present. This type does not consider the problem in depth but gives a general idea about the status and not the deep analysis of each sample,the survey adopts in the study questions prepared in advance through questionnaires and interviews, which could lead to the omission of much of the information which had not been included in these tools. One of the advantages of a survey is the accessibility to the data required for the different variables of the study, and it is an appropriate strategy for data relied upon relatively large scientific community.

57 Some examples of Social Surveys Some themes can be identified in the survey of social and human sciences as follows : In the study characteristics of the housing and economic development of societies such as ( population, age, sex, type, family, children... ). Study of the social and economic environment of societies such as ( income and living standards, and the factors affecting the economic and social levels ). Study of various activities of a group or society, such as universities ( kind of leisure activities, types of newspapers and magazines read by them... ). Study people's views and attitudes towards some of the topics and political issues Study of crime in society and the characteristics and types of edges, and the factors that cause them and their consequences and /or the study of the best ways of crime prevention and response.

58 Case Study A case study is one of the most used and effective methodology in the Descriptive studies in which the researcher is interested in the study of a unit representing the rest of units. The case study approach, is concerned with all aspects of the problem adopted on only one unit or one position. A case study is the kind of in - depth examination of the case by collecting information and data on the status of one existing situation,and past experience and relationship with the environment.

59 Application of Case Study When a researcher needs to investigate the different and detailed characteristics of a certain situation in the field of social, cultural, economic and scientific When a researcher wants to study the evolutionary history for something When a researcher wants to be able to know the truth about the internal life of a person as representative of a group or community, and wishes to examine the motives and problems as representative model for people in the same community ( case study of one drug addicts or criminals ). The advantages of a case study is to provide information that may not provided with other tools. It provides us usually with a fully comprehensive and accurate diagnosis in depth study of the studied situation. Also can help the researcher in to understand and study other cases that are in the same circumstances. One of the drawback of the case study method is the difficulty of the selection of the representative unit (case) and the right way of compilation of data and the sentencing. The difficulty is also to apply all the findings to all other cases “disseminate the results of one case”.

60 ANALYTICAL RESEARCH Involves in-depth study and evaluation of available information in an attempt to explain complex phenomenon. The researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.

61 Historical Methodology A.The historical approach is one of the oldest methods of scientific research. From its pioneers we can mention : Ibn Khaldun, San Simon, Augusts. Sometimes called the documentary approach, due to the use of documents, records and historical sources that contain the information, data and ideas and past events. B.The historical methodology studies accidents and incidents and events of the past years. C. The sense that the historic survey focuses on “what was” and explore the facts and relations in a phenomenon or problem that occurred in the past. D. The function of the historical survey is in interpretation and forecasting. E.the researcher must use the historical method to determine the historical period that concerned his study, and looking for the documents, records and sources associated with this period.

62 Some of The Advantages of The Historical Methodology 1.The historic approach could make the results as much as possible accurate, objective and honest, if the researcher applies the scientific method. 2.Probability theory can be applied to historical events similar to its use in the social and natural sciences. Defects of Historical Research 1.The historic events are events that can not be replicated 2.Historical knowledge is not perfect, it even provides a partial picture of the past, where we cannot obtain a full knowledge of the past because of the nature of the sources and historical exposure to loss, damage and fraud. 3. The difficulty of achieving a high degree of objectivity using historical approach. 4.Lack of discipline.

63 APPLIED / ACTION RESEARCH Finding a solution an immediate problem Say a solution SUBTYPES Marketing research Evaluation research

64 BASIC /PURE/ FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH generalization and with the formulation of theory Natural phenomenon and mathematics are the examples of basic research Finding information in broad base.

65 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Based on measurement of quantity or amount Weighing, measuring are the examples of quantitative research

66 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Phenomena relating quality or kind Character, personality and man kind are the examples of variable used to measure the qualitative research Word association test, Sentence completion test are the examples of qualitative research

67 CONCEPTUAL / EXERIMENTAL RESEARCH Related to some abstract ideas / theory experiment Attempt to establish cause and effect relationship

68 SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF PROBLEM SOLVING / RESEARCH PROCESS Formulating research problem Review of literature Developing hypothesis Preparing research and sample design Collecting data Execution of project Analysis of data Hypothesis testing Discussion Preparation of report or thesis

69 FORMULATING RESEARCH PROBLEM Problems are divided two types –Problems which relate to state of nature –Those which relate correlation between variables Subject of interest to be selected as a problem Always select unsolved problem Initially, may propose in Broadway and ambiguities may resolved Feasibility

70 FORMULATING RESEARCH PROBLEM Understanding the problem thoroughly Rephrasing the same into meaningful term Discuss the problems with colleagues Staff members and guide Take a view of old reviews The final question should be precise and grammatically correct and should state exactly what you expect to learn as a result of a study.

71 Determination of Methodology Framework 1.Specification of the type of research. 2.Specification of methodology of research. 3.Specification of research field. 4.Specification of means of data collecting and information. 5.Identification of tools and materials used to collect these data.

72 How to Identify Questions to Start a Research The Application and Explanation of Unemployment In studying the problem of unemployment among graduates identify research questions as follows : What are the major factors leading to the problem of unemployment among university graduates? What are the features or characteristics of the problem of unemployment among university graduates? What are the consequences of the problem of unemployment among university graduates? What are the efforts of civil society to address the problem of unemployment among university graduates? What are the governmental efforts to address the problem of unemployment among university graduates?

73 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Journals References Reports Books Library is good friend Internet and websites

74 DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS It should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested. The role of hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track.

75 DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS Discussion with colleagues and experts about the problem, its origin and the objectives in seeking solution Examinations of data and records Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies on similar problems Personal investigation which involves original field interviews.

76 PREPARING RESEARCH AND SAMPLE DESIGN State the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted Type of research design Experimental, quasi experimental and non experimental Setting of the study Population Criteria for selection Variables Sample selection

77 COLLECTING DATA Several ways are there to collect the appropriate data Primary data and secondary data By observation Personal interview Telephone interview Questionnaires Survey K. SYED, MPT (ortho)

78 EXECUTION OF PROJECT It is a very important step in research process If it is proceeds on correct lines, the data to be collected would be adequate and dependable. The step should be taken that the data should be in the control of statistics so that the collected information is in accordance with the pre defined designed to tackle this problem K. SYED, MPT (ortho)

79 ANALYSIS OF DATA The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the application of theses categories to raw data through tabulation, coding and editing like statistical interference.

80 ANALYSIS OF DATA Coding: this operation is usually done at this stage through which the categories of data are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted. Editing: it is the procedure that improves the quality of the data for coding Tabulation: It is a part of the technical procedure wherein the classified data are put in the form of tables.

81 HYPOTHESIS TESTING After analyzing the data, the researcher is in position to test the hypothesis. Inference Student ‘t’ test, Chi-square, F- test are the examples of statistical techniques At end, researcher have reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

82 DISCUSSION Chapter or section of a research report that explains what the results mean. Its very important section to add the appropriate supportive literatures.

83 PREPARATION OF REPORT OR THESIS The layout of the report should be as follows. –Preliminary pages –The main text –The end matter

84 CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained. The procedure design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that tare as objectives as possible

85 CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings. The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the method of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of the data should be checked carefully.

86 CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis. Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity.

87 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS The lack of a scientific training in the methodology of research There is insufficient interaction between university and the companies Confidentiality Research studies overlapping one another are undertaken quire often for want of adequate information

88 WRITING PROPOSALS Title Page Remember that at this stage, the title can only be a working title. Nevertheless, all words in the title should be chosen with great care, and their association with one anther must be carefully managed. While the title should be brief, it should be accurate, descriptive and comprehensive, clearly indicating the subject of the investigation. Note that you will only be ready to devise a title when you are clear about the focus of the study.

89 Introduction A.The intention of the proposal is to ensure that the candidates have done sufficient preliminary reading/ research in the area of their choice, that they have thought about the issues involved and are able to provide more than a broad description of the topic which they plan to investigate. B.The proposal is of course not a fixed blueprint. One cannot predict one's findings beforehand or mechanically stick to an argument since the research will inevitably alter or even unseat one's initial expectations. There is no fixed formula for writing a proposal. C.Your research proposal should have at least 3, but not more than about 20 pages. It should have an agreeable layout "typeface and line spacing" as will as a table of contents and page numbers. Remember that board members usually have to read a large number of research proposal.

90 Short Statement of the Problem Give a short summary of the research problem that you have identified – not more than 15 to 20 lines. Remember, that most important aspect of a research proposal is clarity on the research problem. You should choose a topic which can be investigated through appropriate and valid methods and for which research material is available. Your most difficult problem might be narrowing the topic. This often occurs with topics that are still relatively unfamiliar. Do a lot of general reading, and, if possible, consult with your supervisor.

91 Review of Research Literature Give a short and precise overview about the present state of research that is immediately connected with your own research project. Name the most important contributions of other scientists. The proposal should contain a clear and logical discussion of the theoretical framework or body of ideas that will be used to frame the research. The proposal needs to show that you are fully conversant with the ideas you are dealing with and that you gasp their methodological implications. Your research review should indicate an open problem which then will be the motive for your project. State clearly how your own research will contribute to the existing research.

92 Aim of the Research Project Give a concise and clear outline of the academic aims that you want to achieve through your project. Your proposal needs to show why the intended research is important and to justify the effort of doing the research.

93 Methodology This is the central part of your research outline. It may well fill half of the space of your proposal. You should give detailed information about your intended research procedure during the given time. Anyone who reads your proposal will want to know the sources and quality of evidence you will consult, the analytical technique you will employ, and the timetable you will follow. Depending on the adequate empirical data will be gathered for a successful research project. You will describe methods of data gathering, the controls you will introduce, the statistical methods to be used, the type of literature or documentary analysis to be followed and so on.

94 Tentative Time Table Give, if possible in a table information about your estimated time table, indicating the sequence of research phases and the time that you will probably need for each phase. Take into account that at this stage, it can only be estimated, but make clear that you have an idea about the time span that will be needed for each step.

95 Selective Research Bibliography Here you list those academic works which you have mentioned in your research outline as will as a number of other important works on which you will refer during you research.

96 Attachments Give a list of other documents attached to your proposal.


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