1The intersection between the Indigenous CCP and the GC of Intercultural Understanding Joy SchultzSEAQ secretarySEAA committee memberPresented on behalf of SEAQ
2The intersection between the Cross Curriculum Priority and the General Capability Cross-curriculum priorities are embedded in all learning areas. They will have a strong but varying presence depending on their relevance to the learning areas.The content descriptions that support the knowledge, understanding and skills of the cross-curriculum priorities are tagged with icons. The tagging brings to the attention of teachers the need and opportunity to address the cross-curriculum priorities at this time. Elaborations provide further advice on how this can be done, or teachers can click on the hyperlink which will provide further links to more detailed information on each priority.General capabilities are also tagged with icons and can be observed at the same time.
3To see the icons go to any curriculum area on the ACARA website and click on “icons” at the very beginning (before Foundation level)
5Your reactionWhat do you know about Adam Goodes? How do you feel about what happened to him?What are the implications for our society?
6Program for this session In this session we will:Look at the elements of the CCPLook at the elements of the GC of IUHow those elements interactHow we can make it happen in schools
7The Cross Curriculum Priority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander priority provides opportunities for all learners to deepen their knowledge of Australia by engaging with the world’s oldest continuous living cultures. This knowledge and understanding will enrich their ability to participate positively in the ongoing development of Australia.
8A conceptual framework based on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ unique sense of Identity has been developed as a structural tool for the embedding of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures within the Australian curriculum. This sense of Identity is approached through the interconnected aspects of Country/Place, People and Culture. Embracing these elements enhances all areas of the curriculum.
9Elements of the CCP Organising Ideas Country/Place Culture People Australia has two distinct indigenous groups, Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islander PeoplesAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities maintain a special connection to and responsibility for Country/Place throughout all of AustraliaAboriginal and Torres Trait Islander Peoples have unique belief systems and are spiritually connected to the land, sea, sky and waterwaysCultureAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies have many Language GroupsAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ ways of life are uniquely expressed through ways of being, knowing, thinking and doingAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have lived in Australia for tens of thousands of years and experiences can be viewed through historical, social and political lensesPeopleThe broader Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies encompass a diversity of nations across AustraliaAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples have sophisticated family and kinship structuresAustralia acknowledges the significant contributions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people locally and globally
10The General Capability of Intercultural Understanding In the Australian Curriculum, students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to value their own cultures, languages and beliefs, and those of others. They come to understand how personal, group and national identities are shaped, and the variable and changing nature of culture. The capability involves students in learning about and engaging with diverse cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections with others and cultivate mutual respect.
11Organising elements of IU The Intercultural Understanding learning continuum is organised into three interrelated organising elements:Recognising culture and developing respectInteracting and empathizing with othersReflecting on intercultural experiences and taking responsibility
13The learning continuum for IU The continuum is organised into six levels from Foundation to Year 10At each level there is a description of what students typically can do with each of the three elementsThese descriptions, and the icons in each curriculum area, can be used to develop programs that embed Intercultural Understanding.
15Element 1: Recognising culture to develop respect How did cultures develop?What is culture? – some modelsWhat is the difference between culture and race?Aboriginal culture
16How did cultures originally develop? Cultures develop as a way of fulfilling human needsThe Human Genome project has shown us that all humans have 99.9% genes in common and we all have the same needs.This accounts for the similarities among cultures.The variety of ways that humans have found to fulfil their needs depends on their environment, history, the inventiveness of individuals, and outside factors.This accounts for the differences among cultures.Now let us go back in time ……
17The Journey of Mankind http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/journey. Consider:When people first reached AustraliaWhat climatic changes directed the human journey and how they affect AustraliaPopulation expansion probably urged them forwardAgriculture is developed quite late in the journey, so ….NOW imagine ……………..
18The Genographic project How do we know about the makeup and influence of genes? – Genome ProjectHow do we know the movement of people out of Africa? What are the implications for understanding our differences? – The Genographic ProjectAlso, is there an elephant in the room?******(Alert)
19Some definitions These are often confused: Culture – Culture is transmitted in a society; it is learned as children are socialised by their family into shared ethnic meanings; it changes and evolves; people can learn to adapt to living in another culture.Race – Racial features are inherited biologically and cannot be altered. Anthropologists no longer accept that there are 4-5 different races – there is more variation within each of those previous categorisations than between them. Differences relate only to appearance (not IQ, morals or culture etc). *******
20Culture is learnedBy enculturation – socialisation into a culture through our family, school and other institutionsBy acculturation – This occurs when a person goes to live in another culture and adapts to it. The amount to be learned depends on how similar the cultures are.Everyone has a culture that they have been socialised into. It becomes part of our identity, and thus is very difficult to change. It shapes how we see ourselves and the world around us (our world view), and influences how we behave. Some acculturate faster than others.
22Needs Elements of Culture All cultures have the same five elements which develop as responses to specific human needs:The need for food, shelter and clothing – Economic systemThe need for safety and decision-making – Political-legal systemThe need for love and group support – Social StructureThe need to communicate and to educate – Language, arts and educationThe need for explanation about the world – Belief system
24Material and Non-material culture Material /observable/visible culture: E.g. (clothes, tools). This is the least important part of a culture. It can change quickly (think modern communication technology). It is developed from the ideas of relatively few innovative individuals . ******Non-material/ non- observable/non- visible culture: This is the most important part of any culture. It is based in the core values, which change very slowly (think belief in the value of democracy), and in the shared meanings, norms, customs and folkways which children are taught. This invisible culture is the basis for how we see ourselves in relation to other nations/groups and part of our identity. It is the basis of intercultural misunderstanding because we are often unaware of its influence in our lives, or that other cultures do not necessarily have the same beliefs and behaviours. *********
25Culture Model – Iceberg (from the Asia Education Foundation website)
26Cultural lagThere is a period of adjustment when non-material culture struggles to keep up with material changes.Non-material culture resists change and promotes ethical discussion about perceived benefits.An example is genetically modified food. This may have the potential to solve problems of food security in the future, but is resisted because it seems un-natural.The development of new cultural values, norms and beliefs usually lags behind the available technology (social media).This term also helps to explain the adverse effects on traditional societies when colonisation forces them to change very quickly. ******
27Varied cultural values Values about …Type AType BType C?NatureTimeAspirationWorkSavingChangeExplanationCompetitionIndividualityMasteryFutureSuccessHardHoardingRapidlyScientificAggressionSelf-realisationHarmonyPresentWork a little, rest a littleTo satisfy present needsSharingTraditionNon-scientificCooperation and humilityGroup identification
28Do all primitive people have Type B values(?) ******All people belong to the human race (homo sapiens sapiens). All have the same range of intelligence, artistic ability, inventiveness etc. There are NO primitive people.The word primitive may be used to describe the technology used by people, but even then the inventiveness involved needs to be recognised. (e.g. different types of stone tools)The cultures of people such as traditional hunters and gatherers or subsistence agriculturalists are very complex. Their material culture may be limited, but their non-material culture is very rich. If there is no written language, everything has to be remembered. If there are no law-enforcement officers, then methods must be developed to ensure stability and harmony.
29Uncle Ernie Grant’s model My Land My Tracks: A framework for the holistic approach to indigenous studies was developed by Ernie Grant, Dijirabal/Djirrabal Elder and statewide cultural Research Officer, and published by the Innisfail and District Education Centre. The approach to indigenous studies that it provides has been incorporated into the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies syllabus, most notably in section 5, Course organisation. The holistic approach to learning that both the syllabus and the My Land My Tracks framework advocates is especially useful to teachers and students when developing units of work, and individual learning experiences.
30HOW TO Teach Students to: Recognise culture and develop respect
31To recognise culture: Students need to understand – a model of culture that can be used as a basis for comparison;that culture develops in response to needsmaterial and non-material culturethat core values are the most important part of culturethat culture forms the basis of our sense of identitythat culture is learned and we can learn to live in new culturesthat culture is holistic and change to one part will lead to changes in other partsthat material culture changes more quickly than non-material culture and this can lead to ‘culture lag’ and confusion
32To develop respect: Students need to understand - that the basis for cultural similarity is that all humans are trying to fulfil the same basic needsthat the reasons for cultural difference are because of adaptations to different environments, different history etcthat as humans moved out of Africa, various physical adaptations occurred that led groups to have a different appearancethat all humans have 99.9% genes in common and all groups have the same range of intelligence, creativity etcthat Aborigines have been here for at least 60,000 years and have a vast knowledge of this land and its resources. (We have been here for less than 250 years)that the non-material culture of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders is very complex and rich and equally valid to ours
33Element 2. Interacting to develop empathy The importance of feelings (the affective dimension)What is empathy?Forms of interactionThe historical lensStereotyping, prejudice and discrimination
34The affective dimension If empathy is to be developed, then students will have to develop an affective response to people or stories. This may involve change of attitude, but attitudes are difficult to change. Even negative interactions can be used as they are sure to involve feelings, but would need to be handled carefully. (e.g. Adam Goodes case)
35What is empathy?Empathy involves understanding what others are feeling because you have experienced it yourself or can put yourself in their shoes and feel what they are feeling. It is the experience of understanding another person's condition from their perspective.One may need to have a certain amount of empathy before being able to experience accurate sympathy or compassion.Empathy goes beyond sympathy, which is a feeling of care and understanding for the suffering of others and providing comfort and assurance.
36Forms of interactionThe ideal form of interaction is face-to-face. However, with Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders forming les than 3% of the population, many non-indigenous people are unlikely to ever have close interaction with an indigenous personSchools can invite local indigenous people to talk to students but they must observe the required protocols. Also many indigenous people are shy or don’t have happy memories of schools.
37Forms of interaction (cont.) The suggested forms of interaction in the IU continuumEngage with others different from themselvesEngage with texts that represent a range of cultural perspectives; listen and ask questionsLook for / describe shared perspectives with people they see as different, and different perspectives with people they see as similarInterpret cultural differences that are taken for granted by us but may be considered differently by othersLook for areas of agreement and recognise the possibility of misunderstandings; seek clarification
38Understand culture shock People create and transmit meaning through shared symbols; without these symbols, meaning is lost and depression, anxiety, and paranoia arrive. Specifically, culture shock occurs when one is placed into an environment with different symbols and with different notions of types of and acceptable levels of risk than what is 'normal' in one's own culture.Loss of identity occurs as one becomes integrated into the new society with its symbols and meanings. Overall, as the individual is unable to produce and share meaning, he or she is isolated from the community or society. Psychology treats meaning as an individual experience; anthropology recognises it as a shared and corporate entity.
40Interrogate historical interpretations History is usually written by the victorious sideMuch that was not admirable used to be omitted (e.g. massacres, rape of Aboriginal women on properties, stolen children)Look back at Ernie Grant’s model over periods of Pre Contact, Contact, Post Contact and ContemporaryUnderstand that indigenous people within Australia have had a great variety of different experiences over time
41Interacting with difference EthnocentrismAttitudes:Beliefs - StereotypeFeelings - PrejudiceActions - Discrimination
42EthnocentrismPeople born into a particular culture that grow up absorbing the values and behaviors of the culture will develop a worldview that considers their culture to be the norm.If people then experience other cultures that have different values and normal behaviors, they will find that the thought patterns appropriate to their birth culture and the meanings their birth culture attaches to behaviors are not appropriate for the new cultures. However, since people are accustomed to their birth culture, it can be difficult for them to see the behaviors of people from a different culture from the viewpoint of that culture rather than from their own.[Ethnocentrism may be overt or subtle, and while it is considered a natural proclivity of human psychology, it has developed a generally negative connotation
43Components of attitudes Beliefs – Stereotype. A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing: "sexual and racial stereotypes".Feelings – Prejudice. Irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group, race, or religion. An adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the facts.Actions – Discrimination. The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, esp. on the grounds of race, age, or sex.
44HOW TO Teach Students to: Interact to develop empathy
45Forms of interactionWith people – specifically local indigenous people if they are availableWith history and stories – understand the periods of interaction in Australia; fit the experiences of people’s life-histories into the historical narrativeWith each other – in classroom and personal interactions, use the terminology of cultural understanding (cultural difference, perspectives, world view, ethnocentrism and the components of attitudes). Beliefs can be challenged and behaviour can be changed.
46To develop empathyStudents can practice role-plays of appropriate behaviours for interacting with people who are different from them (e.g. Bafa Bafa or Rafa Rafa simulation game)The idea of “making the familiar strange and the strange familiar” can be developed by using analogies (e.g. the aliens analogy for looking at ourselves)Encourage students from different background to work together (e.g. as in sport or projects; get them all together to have fun; mix them up as much as possible; give those discriminated against something to be proud of as in a particular skill) in order to overcome stereotypesUse attitude continuums where students need to justify the positions that they take
47Role play examples of familiar/strange Ask students if they have ever had a sleep-over at a friend’s house or at a relative’s – Did their hosts do things the way they are done at home? How did they feel in that situation?Use an analogy – e.g. the AliensAt home - spaceship arrives in street- aliens with weaponsWhat is your immediate reaction?They take your property – you find somewhere else to liveThey make decisions about how you live; round you upThey take your children to acculturate them; new languageWhat are your feelings? Compare to initial reaction.
483 . Reflecting on experiences in order to take responsibility Reflect on own attitudesReflect on local historyReflect on social attitudes in your school and communityReflect on experiences from other societiesReflect on what could be future relations between indigenous and non-indigenous peopleWhat actions could be taken to ensure better relationsHow to take responsibility
49ACARA –Reflecting to take responsibility Students use reflection to better understand the actions of individuals and groups in specific situations and how these are shaped by culture. They are encouraged to reflect on their own responses to intercultural encounters and to identify cultural influences that may have contributed to these. They learn to ‘stand between cultures’ and mediate cultural difference.To cultivate respect, students need to reflect on and to take responsibility for their own behaviours and their interactions with others within and across cultures. They understand that behaviour can have unintended effects on individuals and communities, and they identify situations requiring intercultural understanding. In developing responsibility, students learn to respect the human rights of others and the values of democracy, equity and justice
50Reflecting in the IU learning continuum Students are asked toReflect on their own intercultural experiences and what they have learned from them (personal and vicarious)Reflect critically on how cultural and racial groups are represented in texts and the mediaReflect on their own attitudes and values in how they respond to other groups and their impact on others
51Taking responsibility in the IU learning continuum Students are asked to:Explain the impact of stereotypes and discrimination on other groupsChallenge the representation of groups in media and textsTry to address issues of discrimination etc in ways that respect cultural diversityConsider ways of reaching understanding between groups and reconciling different cultural valuesRespect the human rights of all and the right to be heard
53Reflections by President Obama on the Trayvon Martin case (2013) I think it's important to recognize that the African-American community is looking at this issue through a set of experiences and a history that doesn't go away.There are very few African-American men who haven't had the experience of walking across the street and hearing the locks click on the doors of cars. That happened to me, at least before I was a senator.And that all contributes, I think, to a sense that if a white male teen was involved in the same kind of scenario, then from top to bottom, both the outcome and the aftermath might have been different.It's important for all Americans to do some soul-searching about their biases, not through a stilted White House-sponsored conference, but with honest conversations in homes, workplaces and churches.
55HOW TO Teach Students to: Reflect in order to take responsibility
56To reflect Encourage students to: Know their own local history of the impact of colonialismUnderstand the symbolic importance for indigenous people of Mabo, land rights, the Apology, ConstitutionConsider their own attitudes (including racism and ethnocentrism) and their impactGive examples of stereotyping an discrimination from the media, texts and current newsReflect on their own intercultural encounters, including those in the school (positive and negative)Learn more about cultures and differences withinWhat it means to live in a multicultural society with the ethic of a fair go
57To take responsibility Encourage students to:Challenge simplistic interpretations of the impact of colonialism and official policies on indigenous peopleChallenge stereotypes, bullying and discrimination base on culture or raceExplain to others the importance of understanding the validity of different cultural valuesBe informed and take action on public issues (e.g. Closing the Gap, recognition in the Australian constitution, destruction of sacred sites) – join campaigns, write lettersTake action to help reconcile cultural differences within their own school and community