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ROBOT DYNAMICS

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MOTORS supply the FORCE that the robot needs to move Rotational Force is called TORQUE The motor needs to supply force to wheels arms

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The Rolling of WHEELS without slipping or spinning Everytime a wheel rotates an entire revolution, the robot travels a distance equal to the circumference of the wheel. Multiply that distance by the number of rotations per minute (rpm) and you get the distance your robot travels in a minute (its speed)

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For example, if your motor has a rotation speed (under load) of 100rpm (determined by looking up the motor part number online) and you want your robot to travel at 3 feet per second, calculate the wheel diameter you would need:

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Wheel diameter and the motor rpm are not the only factors that determine robot velocity: motor torque robot weight robot acceleration To achieve proper velocity/movement, you must balance motor torque robot acceleration wheel diameter

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Motor datasheet motor torque motor speed Motor Torque and Force / Acceleration High force is required to push other robots around, or to go up hills, or have high acceleration. Acceleration Robot mass

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Robot Motor Factor, RMF Something to make life simpler, Can do quick calculation to optimize your robot or select the appropriate motor for your needs RMF (depends on motor specs) Robot characteristics or requirements Wheel speed

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Robot Motor Factor, RMF Example: You found the following 3 motors Motor A: 2 ft lb, 1 rps Motor B: 2.5 ft lb, 2 rps Motor C: 2 ft lb, 4 rps RMF A = 2 ft lb rps RMF B = 5 ft lb rps RMF C = 8 ft lb rps Suppose you want a velocity of 3 ft/s, an acceleration of 2 ft/s 2, and you estimate your robot to weigh 5 lbs Motor B & C will both work. Motor C is overkill, waste of $ Wheel diameter to use?

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Robot Efficiency RMF is for 100% efficient systems. Gearing and friction and many other factors cause inefficiency. General rules for estimating inefficiency – If your robot has external gearing, reduce efficiency 15% uses treads, reduce efficiency 30% operates on high friction terrain, reduce efficiency 10% Example: Tank robot on rough terrain would have what efficiency?

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Robot Motor Factor, RMF incorporating efficiency Something to make life simpler, Can do quick calculation to optimize your robot or select the appropriate motor for your needs RMF (depends on motor specs) Robot characteristics or requirements (efficiency is a decimal # ie 80% is 0.8) Link to RMF Calculator

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Robot Arm Torque determine the torque required at any given lifting joint (raising the arm vertically) in a robotic arm Weight of load Torque needed to hold a mass a given distance from a pivot L is the PERPENDICULAR length from pivot to force

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Robot Arm Torque To estimate the torque required at each joint, we must choose the worst case scenario As arm is rotated clockwise, L, the perpendicular distance decreases from L3 to L1 (L1=0). Therefore the greatest torque is at L3 (F does not change) and torque is zero at L1. Motors are subjected to the highest torque when the arm is stretched out horizontally Greatest torque

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Robot Arm Torque Load W L =mg W1W1 L L/2 Arm weight You must also add the torque imposed by the arm itself RMF (motor specs) Robot arm torque

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W L =mg W3W3 L3L3 L 3 /2 Motor2 W2W2 L2L2 L 2 /2 W1W1 L1L1 L 1 /2 W m3 W m2 Motor3 Motor1 W m1 Robot Arm Torque If your arm has multiple points, you must determine the torque around each joint to select the appropriate motor

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Robot Arm Torque Link to Robot Arm Calculator W L =mg W3W3 L3L3 L 3 /2 Motor2 W2W2 L2L2 L 2 /2 W1W1 L1L1 L 1 /2 W m3 W m2 Motor3 Motor1 W m1

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Gears No good robot can be built without gears. Gears work on the principle of mechanical advantage With gears, you will exchange the high velocity of motors with a better torque. This exchange happens with a very simple equation that you can calculate: Motor specs

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Example: Suppose your motor outputs, according to spec are 3 lb-in torque at 2000rps, but you only want 300rps. 3 lb-in * 2000rps = Torque_New * 300rps new torque will be 20 lb-in. Now suppose, with the same motor, you need 5 lb-in of torque. But suppose you also need 1500rps minimum velocity. How do you know if the motor is up to spec and can do this? Easy... 3 lb-in * 2000rps = 5 lb-in * Velocity new _ New Velocity = 1200rps You now have just determined that at 1200 rps the selected motor is not up to spec. Using the simple equation, you have just saved yourself tons of money on a motor that would have never worked. Designing your robot, and doing all the necessary equations beforehand, will always save you tons of money and time.

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Moves slower More torque Moves faster Less torque Gear Ratios HOW do you mechanically swap torque and velocity with gears? The gearing ratio is the value at which you change your velocity and torque. It has a very simple equation. The gearing ratio is just a fraction which you multiple your velocity and torque by. Suppose your gearing ratio is 3/1. This would mean you would multiple your torque by 3 and your velocity by the inverse, or 1/3.

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Gear Ratios Example: Suppose you have a motor with output of 10 lb in and 100 rps ( old =10 lb in, v old =100rps) and you have a gear ratio of 2/3 Gearing ratio = 2/3 new =10 lb in x 2/3 = 6.7 lb in v new =100rps x 3/2 = 150 rps

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Building your First Robot (for beginners) 1. Design! Plan out everything on paper or computer (what material you will use, where to put every screw, how to attach sensors. Draw to dimension, mark holes and understand how the parts connect) 1.Keep it simple, look at other robots for design ideas. Don’t get imaginative or creative with your first robot. Use fewer and simpler parts 2.

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