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Daria Protopopescu. 1. INTRODUCTION Making presentations involves several elements which differentiate them from all the other forms of communication:

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Presentation on theme: "Daria Protopopescu. 1. INTRODUCTION Making presentations involves several elements which differentiate them from all the other forms of communication:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Daria Protopopescu

2 1. INTRODUCTION Making presentations involves several elements which differentiate them from all the other forms of communication: Content : the amount o information the speaker wants to deliver; Structure: it involves a logical sequence of ideas, focusing on the beginning, the middle and the end of logical thinking; Human component: the presenter’s voice, body language, good understanding of the audience and their needs, the presenter’s profile and gift in persuading the hearers. First of all, presentations should be regarded as ways of communicating ideas and delivering information to a target audience. Presentations show results of the research done on a certain domain, interpreting facts and transferring them into persuading ideas in a logical manner. A good presentation should start from studies of a certain topic/domain/institution and then develop those findings. We will elaborate upon each of the above-mentioned elements in order to outline the ingredients of a good and successful presentation. 2

3 2. Content 2.1. Content The presenter collects information and delivers it paying attention to the audience’s needs and expectations. A good presentation should take into account how much information the target group could take in a limited period of time as well as the human limits in focusing on one particular topic. 3

4 2.1 Structure The structure of an effective presentation follows a certain scenario: Introduction Background Proposal 1 Proposal 2 Key considerations End-discussion 4

5 Requirements: In order to make presentations effective one should try to meet the following requirements: To know if the audience is made up of specialists or amateurs; To have clear objectives and structure; To give a link between parts of the presentation and to provide a logical sequencing of information; To hold the audiences attention; To summarize and conclude the main issues; To make recommendations; To invite for questions and discussions 5

6 Requirements (2): To select the most appropriate visuals; To have rehearsed the presentation beforehand; To use formal / informal style according to the type of presentation; To have checked the room and its equipment. Presentations should be organized according to a few criteria: logical progression of ideas, clear development; sequential description of processes, chronological order of events, i.e. background,  present,  future. For each of the elements of a good presentation there are a few specific phrases. Specific Phrases 6

7 a. The Introduction to a Presentation Greeting Good morning / afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Subject I plan to say a few words about … The subject of my talk is … I’m going to talk about… The theme of my presentation is … 7

8 Structure I’ve divided my talk into (3 parts) First,… Second, … Third, … In the first part … Secondly … Finally… 8

9 Timing My talk will take about ten minutes. The presentation will take about two hours, but there’ll be a twenty minute break in the middle. 9

10 Policy on questions and discussions Please interrupt if you have any questions. After my talk there will be time for a discussion and any questions. 10

11 The main body Ending the introduction So that concludes the introduction. That’s all for the introduction. 11

12 Beginning the main body So, first… To begin with,… 12

13 Listing There are two things to consider. First… second… On the one hand, there are … On the other hand, we can see Sequencing There are four stages involved. At the beginning/ later/ then/ after that/ finally c. Ending the presentation Ending the main body : That’s all I want to say for now on… 13

14 Summary and / or conclusion I’d like to finish with: a summary of the main issues; some remarks based on what I’ve said; some conclusions some recommendations a brief conclusion 14

15 Concluding There are a few conclusions’ What we need is… 15

16 Inviting questions and / or introducing discussion Now, I’d like to invite your comments… So, now, we have five questions and discussion. Feel free to ask questions and make recommendations. 16

17 3. What differentiates presentations from reports, essays etc is the human component which derives from the direct interaction between the presenter and the target group. The human impact ensures the success of a presentation. There are several elements that underlie the human component; the presenter’s body language, voice and profile. 17

18 3.1. Body language An appropriate posture communicates that you know what you are talking about, that you are involved and that you do believe in what you are communicating. Good eye contact conveys credibility, interest and arouses the audience’s interest. 18

19 Facial expressions such as a friendly smile will win the target group’s interest, confidence and openness. 19

20 Voice is also an important tool. One should pay attention to his/her tone, volume and pitch. It is essential to moderate these three elements, to increase or to decrease them according to the emphasis you want to make. 20

21 Pace is also important in order to capture the audience’s attention. Making presentations involves rehearsal; from this perspective the presenter behaves like an actor/actress who has to find the perfect balance between, on the one hand- body language, voice, facial expressions and, on the other hand, the presenter’s profile- nervousness, ability to convince and anticipate the target group’s questions, expectations, hopes, and needs. The presenter should control his/her nervousness which is his/her greatest enemy. Nervousness leads to losing the voice control, to inappropriate body posture, and ultimately, to losing the audience’s interest. 21

22 4. The key to presentation success is only good preparation beforehand involving a logical structure (see 2), a perfect control of voice, pace, emotions etc (see 3), but above all an icebreaker, such as a video file, a story, a testimonial etc, this is what we consider an excellent start whose role is to capture the target group’s attention instantly. The audio-visual aids are o paramount importance according to the extent they are used. One should have the slides organized chronologically according to the presentation structure, the slide should include only the main points that are to be elaborated upon, at length, by the presenter. 22

23 Good techniques Bad techniques Competent presentation Vigorous management Organized material Enthusiastic tone Clear Style Overrunning time Slides out of sequence Unreadable / Fuzzy Visuals Stumbling over word clusters Irrelevant anecdotes Addressing the wrong audience 23

24 Types of visual support are as follows depending on the topic and the audience: film/video, picture, diagram, chart, pie chart, table graph, line graph, equipment: slide projector/OHP/flip chart/whiteboard/meta-plan board. 24

25 There are a few specific phrases when using the visual aids: Introducing a visual I’d like to show you… This chart represents… Here you can see the growing tendency in … Have a look at this transparency 25

26 Describing the speed of change A dramatic/ significant increase/fall To increase/fall markedly/ dramatically/ slightly 26

27 Comparisons Let’s compare the… This compares x with y 27

28 Good techniques of using visual supports Visuals must be well prepared/ well chosen/ clear/ to the point Visuals must be used in combinations, e.g. OHP + flip charts Visuals should be written in appropriate colours to make a contrast with the background Keep text to minimum Use pauses in order to give the audience time to understand the picture/graph Do not use too many visuals Never show a visual until you want to talk about it. 28

29 Tips for successful PPT presentations Make sure the devices work and are plugged beforehand; Talk and face the audience, no the screen; Keep the presentation focus on the main objectives; Speak, do not read! Use the appropriate printing format and style so that anybody could see the text: Use appropriate graphs; Focus only on the main figures, dates etc; Move quickly from slide to slide ; 29

30 Tips for successful PPT presentations Position yourself on the side of the screen; Feel confident, comfortable; Use appropriate tone, pitch of your voice; Use on sentence at the end of each slide to make the link to the next slide; Try to anticipate the questions in the end- this is the only part you cannot prepare beforehand; Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse!!! One word of caution: print your PPT presentation in case of electricity failure!!!!! 30

31 6. Tasks A. Number the 8 key areas according to their prominence. a) Structure b) Objectives c) The room and the equipment d) Practice e) Audience f) Writing out the presentation g) Checking the language h) Visuals 31

32 Tasks (2) B. In any presentation the beginning is crucial. Certainly some things are essential and others are useful. Here is a list of what could be included in an introduction. Mark them according to how necessary they are using the following scale: EssentialUseful Not necessary 1 2345 a) Subject / title of talk b) Introduction to oneself, job title, etc. c) Reference to questions and / or discussion d) Reference for the program for the day e) Reference to how long you are going to speak for f) Reference to the visual aids you plan to use g) The scope of your talk: what is and is not included h) An outline of the structure of your talk i) A summary of the conclusions 32

33 Tasks (3) C. Read the comments from the audience who are listening to a presentation. What caused the problem in each case? a) ‘What on earth is he talking about?’ ‘I’ve no idea!’ b) ‘Hey, Peter! Wake up! E’s finished!’ c) ‘Read that! I’d need a pair of binoculars!” d) ‘Speak up! I can’t hear a thing!’ e) ‘Summarize four main points? I only noticed one! Have I been asleep?’ 33

34 Tasks (4) D. Mark the following statements on a scale of 1 to 5: 1 =”I agree entirely” 2 = “I usually agree” 3 = “I have no opinion / I’m not sure” 4 = “I usually disagree” 5 = “I disagree entirely” a) Speakers giving a presentation should always stand up b) Speakers should not move around at all; c) Men giving formal presentations should always wear a tie; d) You should never look at the audience – it frightens them; e) Tell personal anecdotes about your family and friends to get the audience’s attention; f) You should always check with the organizers that all the equipment works; g) When showing overhead transparencies, you should always point at the screen, not at the transparency; h) Reading from a script is okay; i) Using notes is fine; j) Putting both hands in your pockets is wrong but one hand is okay; k) Speakers often feel more nervous than they look; l) A good presentation is a performance – you need to be an actor; m) If you are running out of time, speak more quickly 34

35 Conclusions The key to good presentations is to play by the following rules: a. use a good ice-breaker; b. research your audience: their needs and expectations; c. get clear about what you are trying to achieve; d. structure this into readable format. e. use. PowerPoint slides or posters; f. practice thinking about who your audience, what you want them to get out of the presentation, about content and style; 35

36 g. rehearse, rehearse, and rehearse; h. control your nerves ; i. test the equipment before the presentation; get familiar with it; j. anticipate the questions that your audience might ask in the end. The conclusion is clear now: the skills required for good presentations combine inborn skills and acquired skills. Like most things, it simply takes a lot of preparation and practice. The presenter should find the perfect balance between content (cohesion and consistency of the topic) and the human element. A good presenter is not only a good professional, but above all, should know a lot about the human psychology. 36

37 REFERENCES Books and journals Dennis Becker (1993), Powerful Presentation Skills Ellen Kaye (2002), Maximize Your Presentation Skills: How to Speak, Look and Act on Your Way to the Top Ian MacKenzie, (2002), English for Business Studies, CUP Jordan P, (1998),English for Academic Purposes, CUP, Robert L. Jolles (2005), How to Run Seminars & Workshops: Presentation Skills for Consultants, Trainers and Teachers Simon Sweeney, (2002), English for Business Communication, CUP, Websites The Presentation Skill Guide & Articles on Presentation Skills, 2012 www.effectivepres. Presentation Skills Book Review, Nancy Duarte, 2008, 37

38 Practical example 38

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