12 Nazi BoycottNazis force three Jewish businessmen to march down Bruehl Strasse, one of the main commercial streets in central Leipzig, carrying signs that read: "Don't buy from Jews; Shop in German businesses!"
13 Nazi BoycottNazi storm troopers block the entrance to a Jewish-owned store in Berlin. Their signs read: "Germans, defend yourselves against the Jewish atrocity propaganda, buy only at German shops!" and "Germans, defend yourselves, buy only at German shops!"
14 April 11, 1933 – Racial Definition - - Nazis issue a decree defining a non-Aryan as "anyone descended from non-Aryan, especially Jewish, parents or grandparents. One parent or grandparent classifies the descendant as non-Aryan...especially if one parent or grandparent was of the Jewish faith."
15 Book BurningMay 10, German students gather in Berlin and other German cities to burn books with "unGerman" ideas. Books by Freud, Einstein, Thomas Mann, Jack London, H.G. Wells and many others go up in flames as they give the Nazi salute.In Berlin, Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels gives a speech : "...The era of extreme Jewish intellectualism is now at an end. The breakthrough of the German revolution has again cleared the way on the German path...The future German man will not just be a man of books, but a man of character. It is to this end that we want to educate you. As a young person, to already have the courage to face the pitiless glare, to overcome the fear of death, and to regain respect for death - this is the task of this young generation. And thus you do well in this midnight hour to commit to the flames the evil spirit of the past. This is a strong, great and symbolic deed - a deed which should document the following for the world to know - Here the intellectual foundation of the November (Democratic) Republic is sinking to the ground, but from this wreckage the phoenix of a new spirit will triumphantly rise..."The speech and book burnings are accompanied by the singing of Nazi songs and anthems.A hundred years earlier, the German-Jewish poet, Heinrich Heine, had stated, "Where books are burned, human beings are destined to be burned too."
17 Restrictive LawsJuly, 1933 – Polish Jews stripped of German citizenshipHereditary Health Court – Forced sterilization of those with “genetic defects”September – Jews banned from the ArtsOctober – Jews may not edit newspapersNovember – Law against Habitual and Dangerous criminals sends beggars, homeless, alcoholics, and unemployed to concentration camps.
18 1934 Jan- Jews banned from Labor Union May- Jews excluded from health careJuly – Jews prohibited from getting legal qualificationsAug – Hindenburg dies, Hitler is Fuhrer- 90% of Germans approve of Hitler and his powers
19 Loyalty Oaths"I swear by God this sacred oath: I will render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, the Führer of the German Reich and people, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, and will be ready as a brave soldier to risk my life at any time for this oath."
20 1935 May – Jews banned from Military June – Law allows forced abortions to prevent hereditary diseaseNuremberg Race Laws decreed
21 Nuremberg Laws Deprived German Jews of their rights of citizenship Forbid Jews to marry or have sexual relations with Aryans or to employ young Aryan women as household help.The Nuremberg Laws had the unexpected result of causing confusion and heated debate over who was a "full Jew." The Nazis issued instructional charts to help distinguish Jews from Mischlinge.
23 August, Nazis set up an Office for Combating Homosexuality and Abortions (by healthy women).January, Jews are banned from many professional occupations including teaching Germans, and from being accountants or dentists. They are also denied tax reductions and child allowances.Nov 8, 'Eternal Jew' traveling exhibition opens in Munich.
24 “Eternal Jew” Exhibition Promoted stereotypes of Jews and Nazi perceptions of their danger to the world.Right: "Jewish dress was a warning against racial defilement."Left: "Usury and the fencing of goods were always their privilege."
25 The Anschluss Austria had 200,000 Jews, now under Hitler’s control SS is placed in charge of Jewish Affairs in AustriaCampaign of humiliation beginsMauthausen concentration camp built near Linz
26 Stiffer Laws in 1938April 22, Nazis prohibit Aryan 'front-ownership' of Jewish businesses.April 26, Nazis order Jews to register wealth and property.June 14, Nazis order Jewish owned businesses to register.July 6, Nazis prohibited Jews from trading and providing a variety of specified commercial services.
27 1938’s Laws ContinuedJuly 23, Nazis order Jews over age 15 to apply for identity cards from the police, to be shown on demand to any police officer.July 25, Jewish doctors prohibited by law from practicing medicine.Aug 17, Nazis require Jewish women to add Sarah and men to add Israel to their names on all legal documents including passports.Sept 27, Jews are prohibited from all legal practices.
28 1938 Stiffer Laws IIIOct 5, Law requires Jewish passports to be stamped with a large red "J."Oct 28, Nazis arrest 17,000 Jews of Polish nationality living in Germany, then expel them back to Poland which refuses them entry, leaving them in 'no-man's land' near the Polish border for several months.Nov 7, Ernst vom Rath, third secretary in the German Embassy in Paris, is shot and mortally wounded by Herschel Grynszpan, the 17 year old son of one of the deported Polish Jews. Rath dies on November 9, precipitating Kristallnacht.
29 Kristallnacht - Nov 9/10 The Night of Broken Glass. Nazi storm troopers along with members of the SS and Hitler Youth beat and murdered Jews, broke into and wrecked Jewish homes, and brutalized Jewish women and children.
30 KristallnachtJewish shops and department stores had their windows smashed and contents destroyed.Synagogues were especially targeted for vandalism, including desecration of sacred Torah scrolls. Hundreds of synagogues were systematically burned.
31 KristallnachtAbout 25,000 Jewish men were rounded up and later sent to concentration camps where they were often brutalized by SS guards and in some cases randomly chosen to be beaten to death.
32 Kristallnacht Punishment Nov 12, Nazis fine Jews one billion marks for damages related to Kristallnacht.Nov 15, Jewish pupils are expelled from all non-Jewish German schools.Dec 3, Law for compulsory Aryanization of all Jewish businesses.Dec 14, Hermann Göring takes charge of resolving the "Jewish Question."
33 Herman Goring’s Response Hermann Göring, "I shall close the meeting with these words, German Jewry shall, as punishment for their abominable crimes, et cetera, have to make a contribution for one billion marks. That will work. The swine won't commit another murder. Incidentally, I would like to say that I would not like to be a Jew in Germany."
34 Hitler Threatens Jews"In the course of my life I have very often been a prophet, and have usually been ridiculed for it. During the time of my struggle for power it was in the first instance only the Jewish race that received my prophecies with laughter when I said that I would one day take over the leadership of the State, and with it that of the whole nation, and that I would then among other things settle the Jewish problem. Their laughter was uproarious, but I think that for some time now they have been laughing on the other side of their face. Today I will once more be a prophet: if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevizing of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!"Adolf Hitler - January 30, 1939
35 1939 Jews must hand over all gold and silver Nazi’s take Czechoslovakia and it 350,000 JewsJews banned from government jobsNazi’s invade Poland which had 3.35 million JewsJews given curfews of 8 & 9
36 Invading PolandThe side of this train reads “Going to Poland to strike at the Jews”.
37 GhettosSept 21, Heydrich issues instructions to SS Einsatzgruppen (special action squads) in Poland regarding treatment of Jews, stating they are to be gathered into ghettos near railroads for the future "final goal."
38 Euthenasia BeginsOctober 1939 – Nazis begin euthenasia of sick and disabled in Germany.
39 German NewspaperIn Sept - Quote from Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher - "The Jewish people ought to be exterminated root and branch. Then the plague of pests would have disappeared in Poland at one stroke."
40 Forced Labor 1939October – All Polish Jews 14 to 60 must complete forced laborNovember – Yellow stars required to be worn by Polish Jews over age 10
41 1940 -Auschwitz is built Jan – Auschwitz is begun - Julius Streicher - "...The time is near when a machine will go into motion which is going to prepare a grave for the world's criminal - Judah - from which there will be no resurrection."
42 1940- DeportationFeb- Germans begin deporting Jews to Poland
43 Sealed InApril – Germans begin sealing Jews into Ghettos by making them build their own walls.
44 Life in the Ghetto Life in the Ghetto was often brutal Jews were subject to whims of SSNazi kicks Jew during forced labor round up in Krakow
46 Einsatzgruppen- March 1941 Heydrich formed SS Special Action (Einsatz) Groups to systematically round up and shoot Polish politicians, leading citizens, professionals, aristocracy, and the clergy. Poland's remaining people, considered by the Nazis to be racially inferior, were to be enslaved.
48 “Einsatzgruppen Begin Killing Jews” July, 1941SS begin killing massive numbers of Jews as they move into occupied landOne of the worst massacres was at Babi Yar near Kiev
49 Zyklon BSeptember 3, 1941Nazi’s begin testing of Zyklon B gas at AuschwitzThe gas had formerly been used as a rat poison
50 1942 Mass Killings using Zyclon B begin in Auswitz and Birkenau Unsespecting Jews were killed in rooms designed to look like shower rooms
51 The BodiesSept 9, Open pit burning of bodies begins at Auschwitz in place of burial. The decision is made to dig up and burn those already buried, 107,000 corpses, to prevent fouling of ground water
52 Crematoriums Constructed Crematoriums are built to handle the processing of human remains.
54 1943 SS has killed over 1 million Jews Jews begin resistance in Warsaw Gypsies sent to extermination campsMore gas chambers are constructed at Auschwitz – daily capacity 4,756 bodiesBerlin is declared “Jedenfrei”
56 1944 Germans continue Mass Execution Auschwitz is expanded to killing capacity of 9,000 per day.Jews from throughout Europe are deported
57 1944 July 24, Soviets Liberate first concentration camp Majdanek Aug 4, Ann Frank is captured by GestapoAug 6, Last Jewish Ghetto Lodz is “liquidated”
58 Himmler Covers UpNov 25, As Soviets approach Himmler orders destruction of crematoriesOskar Schindler saves 1200 Jews by moving them to Brunnlitz
59 Allies Approach1945- Nazis conduct death marches as Allies approach concentration campsJan – Auschwitz liberatedApril – Buchenwald liberated
60 Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945 Hitler Kills his dogs, Eva Braun and finally himself.A few days before blowing out his brains in his underground bunker in Berlin in April 1945, Adolf Hitler said to Albert Speer, in charge of the production of armaments, "I've given orders that I be cremated. Fraeulein Braun [his mistress] wants to depart this life with me, and I'll shoot Blondi [Hitler's dog] beforehand. Believe me, Speer, it is easy for me to end my life. A brief moment and I'm freed of everything, liberated from this painful existence."
61 Pictures from the Liberation of German Holocaust Camps What the Soldier’s SawPictures from the Liberation of German Holocaust CampsAnd German documents