Presentation on theme: "Erik de Graaff Programme Introduction Foundations of PBL and Project Organised Learning Exercise Experiences with teaching and Learning Video Tutoring."— Presentation transcript:
Erik de Graaff Programme Introduction Foundations of PBL and Project Organised Learning Exercise Experiences with teaching and Learning Video Tutoring Maastricht Exercise Project work Exercise Case construction Brainstorm Effectiveness of PBL Workshop Problem Based Learning and Project Organized Learning
Erik de Graaff Learning experiences Starting in kindergarten we all have years of experiences with teaching and learning. In this exercise you are invited to go back in your memory. First you will have to come up with a positive and a negative experience in your role as a learner, next you will have to relate experiences that you have witnessed from another teacher and finally you have to select a positive and a negative experience in your role as a teacher
Erik de Graaff Learning experiences Worst experienceBest experience As a leaner
Erik de Graaff Learning experiences Worst experienceBest experience From a collegue
Erik de Graaff Learning experiences Worst experienceBest experience As a teacher
Erik de Graaff Pedagogic approaches employing the principles of self-directed learning Maria Montessori: my playing is my learning Jerôme Bruner: learning by discovery William Killpatrick: whole hearted learning Carl Rogers: student centered learning The Harvard method: case based learning
Erik de Graaff Carl Rogers on teaching at Harvard in 1951 I have come to feel that the only learning which significantly influences behavior is self- discovered, self-appropriated learning. It seems to me that anything that can be taught to another is relatively inconsequential, and has little or no significant influence on behavior. My experience has been that I cannot teach another person how to teach. To attempt it is for me, in the long run, futile.
Erik de Graaff Characteristics of PBL and POL Thematic curriculum structure Integration of knowledge and skills Integration of different domains Focus on the learning process Cooperative learning in small groups Students responsible for their own learning
Erik de Graaff Teacher roles in a PBL curriculum The teacher as: Expert Facilitator De Graaff & Frijns, 1993 Designing a stimulating environment for learning Management of the learning process, including evaluation Stimulates students to define their own learning goals and to direct their own learning process
Erik de Graaff Differences between Projects and PBL Type of problem Time per problem Number of students Role of the teachers Expected results Assessment a real life task broad range small groups (4-8) expert a finished product product and process phenomenon about one week small groups (6-12) process facilitator learning results individual test of learning results ProjectsPBL
Erik de Graaff Different types of projects Assignment projects (AP) planning and control by the teachers/supervisors problem and the subject chosen beforehand Subject projects (SP) definition of the subject by the teachers beforehand. students choose a problem and method. Problem projects (PP) problem determines the choice of disciplines and methods.
Erik de Graaff Key aspects of PBL (Problem and Project) Self directed learning Experiental learning Situated learning Colaborative learning Transferable skills Cognitive apprenticeship The student in control focussing on experiences in an environment designed as a social context to learn for a lifetime of learning from each other
Erik de Graaff Challenges for teachers in a PBL curriculum to design a learning environment: motivating, stimulating, challenging for the students to manage the learning process: integrating subject matter participating in teamwork to facilitate learning: guiding the process without taking the lead guarding quality without hindering the process
Erik de Graaff Experiences with PBL Instruction Competitive Experiential Strict A B Open C D E F
Erik de Graaff The Maastricht model: A Curriculum based on thematic modules PBL Modules: lasting six weeks containing just some cases integrating knowledge form different disciplines Tutorial Groups self-directed learning eight students in a group cooperation and teamwork Facilitated by a tutor: guiding the process without taking the lead guarding quality without interfering in the process
Erik de Graaff A PBL CASE FROM MEDICINE Woman, 22 years old, not married, lives with her parents, she is a nursing aide in an old peoples home, youngest of 5 children. The G.P. sees her every now and then with complaints of hyperhidrosis*. Complaint now: since three days sick and vomiting, everything comes back. Stools normal, no abdominal pains. She is not feeling very ill, on the other hand she is not feeling able to work. When asked whether there has been anything special recently, the patient relates that for three weeks she has been in charge of a nursing department of the old peoples home, because the person normally in charge went on holidays. "The old people looked down at me as a youngster, they did not accept any instruction from me". The complaints started directly after this period, when the head of the department had returned from her holiday (three days ago). You don't notice any abnormality in her physical appearance. family physician practice * Hyperhidrosis: excessive sweating
Erik de Graaff A PBL LAW CASE John and Mary fall in love. They have a turbulent affair and after a short while they decide to get married. Mary, who is raised in a traditional family, insists on a formal engagement prior to the wedding. At the occasion of the engagement Mary's father presents the would be couple a piece of land (worth about $50.000) to build a house. Mary has also some money of her own and she spends another $ to have a casco- house build on the terrain. John has little money. Instead, he is skilful. He spends his saved holidays to finish building the house. He pays over $ for building materials out of his own pocket. No sooner is the house finished, or Mary breaks off the engagement. She has fallen in love with Peter. The new couple wants to emigrate to Australia and they decide to sell the house for a sum of $ John realizes he has lost his Mary, but what about the money? Love sick
Erik de Graaff A CASE IN ARCHITECTURE A block of houses in a pre-war area of a large city is being renovated. The facades will be isolated and the originally hand-made wooden windows will be replaced by prefab thermo pane. The manufacturer of the windows agrees to delivery, but refuses to take responsibility for the calibration at the site.
Erik de Graaff The role of the facilitator Questions about the facilitator role What can a facilitator do to stimulate the group process? Can everyone (learn to) be a facilitator? How about content expertise of the facilitator? Should the tutor judge the performance of the group members? What to do when the group is doing ok without you? What to do when you experience a strong urge to act against the rules for a good facilitator?
Erik de Graaff Process Facilitator Interventions Process oriented and indirectly guiding: Summarizing Mirroring Asking open-ended questions Suggesting alternatives Feedback
Erik de Graaff The seven step procedure of group problem solving 1.Clarify terms 2.Define the problem 3.Analyze the problem 4.Arrange explanations 5.Formulate learning goals and allocate tasks 6.Search for additional information 7.Report and test new information