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Contraception Freshman Health Ramsey High School.

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Presentation on theme: "Contraception Freshman Health Ramsey High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contraception Freshman Health Ramsey High School


3 Contraception Intentional prevention of conception through the use of various devices, agents, drugs, sexual practices, or surgical procedures.

4 Questions How will it fit into your lifestyle? How effective will it be? How safe will it be? How affordable will it be? Is it reversible? Does it protect against STDs

5 Over-the-Counter Abstinence Condom Female Condom Spermicides Sponge

6 Abstinence How It works Abstaining from sex (do not take part in) –Vaginal, anal, oral

7 Effectiveness 100% –In preventing pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

8 Advantages Prevents pregnancy and STDs Finding other ways to be intimate with your partner Talking, listening, sharing, being honest, respecting each others thoughts and feelings

9 Disadvantages Peer pressure May be hard for some people to abstain

10 Availability/Cost Costs nothing Available to everyone

11 Condom How it works -latex or lambskin sheath that serve as a barrier preventing the passage of sperm as well as disease carrying organisms. -prevents vaginal fluids from entering the male’s urethral opening.

12 Effectiveness 82%-98% More protection is possible if condoms are used with a spermicide.

13 Advantages Does not alter hormonal balance Readily available Allows men to share responsibility for birth control and STD prevention No side effects (unless latex allergy)

14 Disadvantages Must stop intercourse to apply condom May lessen sexual sensations Can slip off or tear

15 Availability/Cost Over-the-counter –Drug stores, super markets, family planning clinics, college health centers. Less than $.50-$2.00/each F.Y.I. – CAN ONLY BE USED ONCE Also check expiration dates

16 Female Condom How It Works Serves as a barrier method Polyurethane (plastic) pouch with flexible rings at each end Used to line the vagina during intercourse Collects semen

17 Effectiveness 79%-95% Can be used with spermicides

18 Advantages Allows woman to share responsibility in preventing STD’s Do not need an erection to stay in place

19 Disadvantages Vaginal irritation May slip into the vagina during intercourse Bulky, hard to insert Less effective than male condom in preventing pregnancy and STD’s noisy

20 Availability/Cost OTC –Drug stores, family planning clinics, some super markets Costs about $2.50/each

21 Spermicides How It Works Chemical agent that immobilizes sperm (nonoxynol-9) Coats the cervical opening Comes in a variety of preparations –Foams, creams, jellies, film & suppositories

22 Effectiveness 71%-85% Using a condom increases effectiveness

23 Advantages No prescription required Do not have to interrupt intercourse –Can be inserted beforehand

24 Disadvantages High failure rate Some brands may irritate the penis or vagina No STD protection Can be messy (leakage)

25 Availability/Cost OTC –Drug stores, some super markets, family planning clinics $8.00—foam/gel refills cost about $4-$8

26 The Sponge How It Works Made of polyurethane foam and contains spermicide –Serves as a barrier covering the cervix –Releases spermicide –Traps and absorbs sperm

27 Effectiveness 84%-91% –Women who have never given birth 68%-80% –Women who have given birth *must be left in for 6 hrs after intercourse

28 Advantages Does not interrupt intercourse –Can be inserted hrs ahead of time Can be worn up to 30 hours No prescription

29 Disadvantages No STD protection Can get messy Insertion/removal can be difficult Vaginal irritation Increased of TSS

30 Availability/Cost OTC –Just put back on the market this fall (Walgreens) 3-pack--$7.50-$9.00

31 Prescription Methods The Pill The Patch—Ortho Evra The Ring—Nuva Ring Diaphragm, caps, shields The Shot—Depo Provera IUD-Intrauterine Device

32 The Pill 2 types—combination and progestin-only Combination-pills contain both synthetic estrogen and progestin (like hormones produced in the ovaries). Progestin-only-contains synthetic form of progestin

33 How it Works Keeps the ovaries from releasing an agg (ovulation) Thickens cervical mucus-prevents the passage of sperm Hormone also affects lining of the uterus- prevents implantation

34 Effectiveness 92%-99% Failure rate increases if: –Pills are started too late in the cycle –2 or more pills are missed in a row –Pills are taken in wrong order –Taken with antibiotics and other meds.

35 Advantages Protection for 1 month Nothing to do right before intercourse to protect against pregnancy Regulates menstrual cycle Less acne Protection against some cancers Fewer non-cancerous breast growths REQUIRES REGULAR CHECK-UPS

36 Disadvantages No STD protection Must take daily pill Weight gain/loss Breast tenderness Nausea Changes in mood Health risks

37 Availability/Cost By prescription only Exam ranges from $35-$125 Monthly packages $20-$35

38 The Patch—Ortho Evra How It Works Same as the pill Thin beige, plastic patch applied to the skin Change patch once a week for 3 weeks Do not wear anything for 4 th week

39 Effectiveness 99% Failure rate increases –Patch becomes loose or falls off for more than 24 hours –Same patch is left on for more than 1 week

40 Advantages (specific to The Patch) Does not involve taking a pill everyday

41 Disadvantages (specific to The Patch) Skin reaction at site of application No STD protection

42 Availability/Cost Prescription only Exam $35-$125 Patches--$20-$35

43 Diaphragm, Caps, Shields How It Works Soft latex or silicone barriers that are intended to fit securely in the vagina to cover the cervix Holds spermicide in place

44 Effectiveness (varies with method) Diaphragm—84%-94% Shield—85% Fem Cap –86% (before childbirth) –71% (after childbirth)

45 Advantages No interruption—can be inserted hours ahead of time Can be easily carried (purse,pocket) No hormones –Can be used during breast feeding

46 Disadvantages Insertion can be difficult Can be pushed out of place Vaginal irritation Can be messy

47 Availability/Cost Prescription only Exam $50-$200 Prescription barrier methods $15-$75 Spermicide $8-$17

48 The Shot—Depo Provera How it works Shot of synthetic progesterone (similar to that produced in the ovaries) –Keeps the ovaries from releasing an egg (ovulation) –May thicken cervical mucus –Prevents implantation (uterine lining)

49 Effectiveness 97%-99%

50 Advantages Can be used by women who cannot take estrogen Nothing to put in place Protection against pregnancy for 12 wks Reduces menstrual cramps Helps prevent cancer (uterine lining)

51 Disadvantages No STD protection Irregular bleeding (most common) Takes 12 wks-more than a yr to conceive after last shot Inconvenient (shot every 3 months) Less common side effects Research update

52 Availability/Cost Exam $35-$125 Injections cost $30-$75 Subsequent visits $20-$40 plus injection

53 IUD—Intrauterine Device (2 types) Small devices made of plastic –ParaGard-also contains copper –Mirena-releases Progestin

54 How It Works Usually prevents fertilization Seem to affect the way the egg and sperm move –Immobilizes sperm, egg moves faster through fallopian tubes. Affect the lining of the uterus (prevents implantation)

55 Effectiveness 99%-over 99% Effectiveness is increased by checking IUD string regularly

56 Advantages Highly effective Basically maintenance-free Long term protection –ParaGard-12 yrs –Mirena-5 yrs No interruption Ability to conceive returns quickly when us is stopped

57 Disadvantages Insertion can be painful (like severe menstrual cramps) Side effects—excessive cramping, irregular bleeding Risk of PID No STD protection

58 Availability/Cost Prescription only –Exam insertion, follow-up--$175-$400

59 STD Prevention

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