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“Toward Effective Listening”

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Presentation on theme: "“Toward Effective Listening”"— Presentation transcript:

1 “Toward Effective Listening”
Chapter 6 “Toward Effective Listening”

2 Topics of Discussion Why learn about listening Effectiveness
Time spent Areas affected Misconceptions Process Factors affecting listening Using feedback to analyze listening Kinds of listening/goals

3 Section 1 “Understanding the Listening Process”

4 Why Learn About Listening?

5 Most used communication skill
Least taught Least understood Assumed to develop naturally Training is generally negative

6 Effectiveness Immediate = ½ 8 hours later lose 1/3 to ½
Retain only 25% of original

7 Time Spent Writing 9% Reading 16% Talking 30% Listening 45%

8 Areas Affected School Relationships Social groups and organizations
Public dialogue Workplace Safety

9 Misconceptions

10 Listening and hearing are the same
Hearing is a physical first step in the listening process, but it doesn’t imply understanding

11 Listening is easy or automatic
It is complex and requires energy, effort, and skill

12 Listening develops naturally
Consists of learned skills and behaviors that can be learned, relearned, improved, and refined

13 Anyone can listen well if they really try
You can exert effort, but you may not be able to listen effectively if you lack the skills or noises can not be overcome

14 The speaker is responsible for the message and success of communication
Speaker and listener share responsibility Listener may have to compensate for speaker’s lack of skill

15 If that’s what you heard, that’s what was said
Listeners can’t assume they heard correctly and should use perception checks

16 Attitude and listening are unrelated
It’s an important factor in listening and retaining information

17 People remember most of what they hear
Listening and remembering are related, but failure to remember may not be due to faulty listening

18 Process:

19 Acquiring Pick up stimulus with senses (hearing)
Outer ear acts as antennae and picks up sound waves Relayed to middle ear and amplified Passed to inner ear and transforms acoustical energy to electrical impulses Relayed to brain for processing

20 Acquiring Differences distinguishing Different sound Levels of volume
Higher and lower pitches

21 Acquiring Noise and barriers Loud noises Interfere
Can cause hearing loss

22 Acquiring Noise and barriers Repeated doses of some antibiotics
Chronic ear infections Conflicting auditory and visual data Distracting physical movements Harsh or irritating voice Attitude and emotions

23 Attending Choice – not automatic Selective perception Needs Interests
Attitude Knowledge

24 Attending Improving skills Evaluate – determine importance
Adjust attitude Focus energy on message/ turn off other thoughts Determine what can be gained with focus Ignore distractions Maintain concentration

25 Understanding Decode Steps Listen carefully
Filter based on experiences

26 Understanding Decode Strategies Build vocabulary Use perception checks
Assume responsibility instead of expecting others to adjust

27 Understanding Interpret Self-talk/tell yourself what speaker is saying
Goes through filter system Feelings and needs Perception check Ask questions before finalizing

28 Understanding Strategies Check filter system
Ask “Is this what they are really saying or just what I’m hearing?” and “Am I overlooking any alternatives?” Ask for more information before finalizing interpretation Take responsibility for interpretations and remain open, flexible, will to adapt and adjust

29 Understanding Respond Emotional – how do you feel about it
Intellectual – what do you think about it Analyze and evaluate your response to the message Encode choices to say or do

30 Understanding Skills Monitor, analyze and evaluate
Consider possible alternatives Decide what’s appropriate – balance rewards/consequences Take responsibility Consider all responses and provide constructive, realistic feedback Choose clear words

31 Factors Affecting Listening

32 Factors Affecting Listening
Noise Barriers

33 Factors Affecting Listening
Memory Not always straightforward – can be selective Choose what to remember Remember only as we wish to Eliminate or suppress certain memories

34 Factors Affecting Listening
Memory Types Immediate Long-term Short-term

35 Factors Affecting Listening
Memory Skills Concentrate as you receive messages Use calendars, lists or notes Summarize, rehearse, repeat or write info to seal it into memory Form mental associations and organize into related clusters Learn new info in small portions – don’t cram

36 Using Feedback to Analyze Listening

37 Using Feedback to Analyze Listening
Inappropriate feedback Cannot or did not hear correctly Listener lacks verbal decoding skills Interpreted as unrelated, uninteresting, offensive or irrelevant

38 Section 2 “Developing Listening Skills

39 Types of Listening Active Listening Process is transactional
Active = better grades than passive = more enjoyment and info, rewards = make fewer mistakes, have better performance, higher productivity and increased value as employees

40 Types of Listening Passive listening Try to absorb with no transaction
Easily bored, distracted, give negative nonverbal feedback Generally no rewards Place responsibility on speaker Lazy listening Produces boredom, apathy, lack of interest

41 Types of Listening Impatient listening
Pay attention in short bursts due to noise interruptions Make mistakes by forgetting details or instructions Give V & NV cues at inappropriate times Masks lack of concentration or interest

42 Types of Listening Impatient listening Types
Anticipatory/anticipates what will be said and plans response Defensive/goal is to argue or disagree Combative/goal is to win or put down Distracted/pays attention to first, assumes what will be said, starts thinking about something else

43 Goals for Listening Critical

44 Goals for Listening Critical Skills Identify goal or purpose
Gather info beforehand to build vocabulary Focus on V and NV messages Organize info to grasp main idea and supporting details Use perception checks Consciously store into memory bank Ask questions, give feedback, take action

45 Goals for Listening Deliberative

46 Goals for Listening Deliberative Skills Identify goal or purpose
Gather info beforehand as basis for judgment Listen specifically to evaluate Identify supporting info and use of emotional appeal

47 Goals for Listening Deliberative Skills
Observe V & NV cues to evaluate attitudes and feelings. Determine if they support or conflict Analyze motivation or intent Reflect on your responses Give feedback – delay action if needed Reserve judgment if unsure of facts Make decision when info is sufficient

48 Goals for Listening Empathic

49 Goals for Listening Empathic Skills
Observe NV to analyze feeling speaker has for listener and context Monitor understanding of speaker, message and situation Analyze own responses, biases, prejudices and feeling toward speaker, message or context Use perception checks Paraphrase Ask questions to help speaker clarify meaning

50 Goals for Listening Appreciative

51 Goals for Listening Appreciative
Listen for fun, to imagine or extend creativity Most often used in social situations Used to relax or escape everyday stress Can inspire and provide personal growth

52 Goals for Listening Appreciative Skills to listen for enjoyment
Consider experiences to expand knowledge Investigate styles, formats, etc Be familiar with background or critiques of performers Avoid distractions Avoid judgment until performance is complete Respond appropriately to ideas, feelings and skills of performers Give appropriate feedback

53 Using the Four Goals Identify goal needed for situation Set goal
Consider relationship with others Use memory technique Keep an open mind Be interactive

54 What This Means to You Listening isn’t easy or automatic. It takes effort and hard work. You have to set goals, and choose your style. The rewards for listening are great; the consequences of not listening can be fatal.

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