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U.S. History I Chapter 5 1865-1914 Immigration and Urbanization Background: Immigrant Family Right: “Deported Pen” Ellis Island.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History I Chapter 5 1865-1914 Immigration and Urbanization Background: Immigrant Family Right: “Deported Pen” Ellis Island."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History I Chapter Immigration and Urbanization Background: Immigrant Family Right: “Deported Pen” Ellis Island

2 U.S. History I Chapter 5 Section 1 “The New Immigrants” 2.3, 3.7, 9.3, 9.4 Top Left: Immigrant “test”, Sikh Immigrants from India, Angel Island Poster, and Chinese Exclusion Cartoon

3 Immigrants Decide to Leave Home Why did Europeans come to the U.S.?  Push Factors  Farm poverty and worker uncertainty  Wars and conscription  Political tyranny  Religious oppression  Pull Factors  Plenty of land and work (Homestead Act 1862)  Higher standard of living  Democratic political system  Opportunity for social advancement

4 The Immigrant Experience Steerage: the cheapest and basic way to travel on a steamship Arrived at Ellis Island –K–K= hernia –X–X= mental disabilities –H–H= heart problems –S–Sc= scalp problems “Old” Immigrants: Northern & Western Europe: Pre- Irish/German “New” Immigrants: Southern & Eastern Europe- Catholic/Jewish “Chain” Immigrants: Family of original immigrant

5 Angel Island Chinese Immigrants –Taiping Rebellion –Central Pacific Railroad Japanese Immigrants –Economic hardships Over 200,000 Chinese and Japanese immigrants arrived on the West Coast during the late 1800s

6 Resurgence of Nativism –Nativism: extreme dislike for immigrants by native- born people and a desire to limit immigration Prejudice Against Newcomers –Prejudice: an adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand without knowledge of the facts; an irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group, race or religion –Discrimination: Treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit; partiality or prejudice –American Protective Association Henry Bowers –Anti-Catholic & Foreigners –Wanted to stop all immigration

7 The Immigration Debate “They would close to the newcomer the bridge that carried them and their fathers over”

8 Americanization: Programs aimed at turning immigrants into “Americans” Assimilation: To blend into society Melting Pot: Many cultures combine to form one distinct “American” culture Impact on the Anti-Immigrant Movement –W–Workingman’s Party of California Dennis Kearney –F–Fighting Chinese immigration –C–Chinese Exclusion Act: 1882 Barred Chinese immigration for 10 years Barred Chinese immigrants already in the country from becoming citizens Even after Chinese protests became a permanent act in 1902 Act was repealed in 1943

9 U.S. History I (Five Points and NYC) Chapter 5 Section 2 “Cities Expand and Change” 2.2, 2.3, 3.7, 9.3 e-points.htm

10 Section 2: Urbanization Americans Migrate to the Cities: Rural to Urban Migrants: Urbanization Immigrants The New Urban Environment Frederick Law Olmsted - Central Park: N.Y.C. – Skyscrapers - 10 Stories and up : Home Insurance Building: Chicago Louis Sullivan – Mass Transit: Carry Many People Elisha Otis: Safety Elevator Inventor Separation by Class – High Society – Middle-Class Gentility: “Streetcar” Suburbs-Cleaner ‘perimeter’ of city – The Working Class Tenements : Low-cost multi-family housing – Average annual income $445.00

11 Frederick Law Olmstead Designed Central Park in NYC

12 City Problems Pollution/Sanitation Crime Racial Tension “classism” Political Corruption Fire: 1871: Great Chicago Fire 100,000 People left homeless (top right: immigrant children living in poverty)

13 The “Great” Chicago Fire: Killed 100,000 Left homeless

14 U.S. History Chapter 5 Section 3 “Social and Cultural Trends” “2.2,3.6,9.3” “Uncle Sam is a Man of Strong Features” (Top Left) “The Melting Pot” (Top Right)

15 The Gilded Age A Changing Culture Gilded Age –M–Mark Twain and Charles Wagner –T–The Idea of Individualism –H–Horatio Alger Brave and Bold Rags to Riches stories

16 Americans Become Consumers Conspicuous Consumption: Buying for status and the sake of buying: Buying more for WANT than NEED. Advertising: Rowland Macy (NYC), Jordan Marsh (Chicago: “Marshall” Fields) Department Store: variety of goods organized into departments…used advertising Standard of living began to improve for middle/upper class

17 Mass Culture Newspaper: Joseph Pulitzer: Evening World William Randolph Hearst: Morning Journal

18 Literature and Arts: Creating Social Awareness Horatio Alger: Rags to Riches Stephen Crane: Maggie: a Girl from the Streets (NYC Slums and Prostitution) Red Badge of Courage (Psychological Impact of War) Edith Wharton: Age of Innocence: Questioned societies “rigid rules” Thomas Eakins: Realist Painter

19 Popular Entertainment Amusement Parks: Coney Island Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show Church Summer Camps Vaudeville: Music, Comedy, Acrobats, Animal Acts, and Plays were featured Spectator Sports: Boxing, Baseball Baseball: included black players until 1876: Chicago Cubs Formed 1887: Chicago White Stockings refused to play a team with a black player James Naismith: invented basketball in 1891 at YMCA

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