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Sociolinguistics “Sociolinguistics [is] the study of the interplay of linguistic, social, and cultural factor in human communication…” Wolfson, Nessa.

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Presentation on theme: "Sociolinguistics “Sociolinguistics [is] the study of the interplay of linguistic, social, and cultural factor in human communication…” Wolfson, Nessa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sociolinguistics “Sociolinguistics [is] the study of the interplay of linguistic, social, and cultural factor in human communication…” Wolfson, Nessa. Perspectives: Sociolinguistics and TESOL. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1989, p. 1. 1/14

2 Abbreviated Outline of Fromkin et al., Chapter 10: Language in Society 1  Dialects  Accents  Dialects of English  Phonological Differences  Lexical Differences  Syntactic Differences  Standard Language Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, seventh edition. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. 2/14

3  Banned Languages  Revival of Languages  African American English  Pidgins and Creoles  Styles, Slang, and Jargon  Taboo Language  Language and Gender 3/14 Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams An Introduction to Language, seventh edition. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. Abbreviated Outline of Fromkin et al., Chapter 10: Language in Society 2

4 Why are you interested in TESOL? “A fascination with the sociocultural aspects of language behavior, and the opportunity to interact with people from cultures other than one’s own, often serve as an initial attraction to the field [of TESOL].” Wolfson, Nessa. Perspectives: Sociolinguistics and TESOL. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1989, pp /14

5 Communicative Competence “…the ability of native speakers to use the resources of their language(s) in ways that are not only linguistically accurate but also socially appropriate.” Wolfson, Nessa. Perspectives: Sociolinguistics and TESOL. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1989, p. 3. 5/14

6 Components of Communicative Competence 1. Grammatical competence 2. Discourse competence 3. Sociolinguistic competence 4. Strategic competence 6/14

7 Appropriate Use of Language in a Given Context 1. What is a polite / appropriate thing to say at a funeral? 2. How do you address someone you have just met? 3. What words should you use to make a polite request? 4. What is an acceptable way to decline an invitation? 5. Why is it not a good idea to say 再見 when visiting at a hospital in Taiwan? 7/14

8 Techniques for Investigating Language Use  Introspection—look at what WE know about our own language  OBSERVE language being used by others in natural contexts.  Controlled experiments / Elicitation techniques  READ ABOUT IT in some reference book or some journal where someone has done research about it. 8/14

9 Labov's "Department Store" Study on Post-vocalic / r/ 3 levels of department stores (rich, middle class, lower class) He asked store clerks: Where are the XXXs? (shoes, for example). (He had visited the store beforehand and already knew that every item he asked for would be on the FOURTH FLOOR in that store.) 9/14

10 Dell Hymes’ Ethnography of Speaking Paradigm 1 1. Setting Act Situation 2. Scene 3. SpeakerParticipants 4. Addressor 5. Hearer 6. Addressee 7. Purposes/OutcomesEnds 8. Goals Wolfson, Nessa. Perspectives: Sociolinguistics and TESOL. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1989, pp (From Hymes, 1972) 10/14:8

11 9. Message FormAct Sequence 10. Message Content 11. Keys Key 12. ChannelsInstrumentalities 13. Forms of Speech 14 Norms of Interaction Norms 15. Norms of Interpretation 16. Genres Genres Wolfson, Nessa. Perspectives: Sociolinguistics and TESOL. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1989, pp (From Hymes, 1972) 11/14:8 Dell Hymes’ Ethnography of Speaking Paradigm 2

12 1. Identify the Linguistic Variable 2. Identify the Social Variable 3. Identify what Social Variable the Linguistic Variable correlates with 4. Understand why. How can we EXPLAIN this? 12/14:4 Goals of Sociolinguistics

13  Phonology  Syntax (Grammar)  Vocabulary  Morphology  Pragmatics  OTHERS 13/14:6 Range of Linguistic Variations

14  SPEAKING model items / factors  Other lists of factors (e.g., Question Words) 14/14:3 Range of Social Variations


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