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AFTER-ACTION REVIEW (AAR) 1. After-Action Review “We must continue to look critically at our abilities to achieve decisive victory and aim to improve.

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Presentation on theme: "AFTER-ACTION REVIEW (AAR) 1. After-Action Review “We must continue to look critically at our abilities to achieve decisive victory and aim to improve."— Presentation transcript:

1 AFTER-ACTION REVIEW (AAR) 1

2 After-Action Review “We must continue to look critically at our abilities to achieve decisive victory and aim to improve. I believe that one of the single most important innovations of the past 20 years...one of the keys to our edge today...is the After-Action Review. At all levels, the AAR provides us an honest appraisal of our performance and directs our efforts to correct shortcomings.” General Gordon R. Sullivan, CSA ( Ret) 2

3 Action : Identify the procedures for planning, preparing, and conducting a After Action Review. (AAR) Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC Standard : The new OC/T will be able to plan,prepare, and conduct a After Action Review Terminal Learning Objective 3

4 Agenda Definition Objective Purpose Key points Guidelines Formal AAR Informal AAR The four phases of an AAR Summary 4

5 Definition An AAR is a professional discussion of an event, focused on performance standards, that enables soldiers to discover for themselves What happened, Why it happened and How to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses. It is a tool leaders and units can use to get maximum benefit from every mission or task. 5

6 Objective The objective of an AAR is to improve individual and collective task performance by providing immediate feedback about how the training or tasks could have been done better. 6

7 Purpose Guide the unit towards achieving training objectives Identify lessons learned so they can be applied to subsequent training or task performance Increase confidence in unit leaders Increase proficiency of all participants 7

8 AAR Key Points Involve all participants Are conducted during or immediately after each event Focus on intended training objective Focus on soldier, leader and unit performance 8

9 AAR Key Points (cont) Use open-ended questions Are related to specific standards Determine strengths and weaknesses Link performance to subsequent training 9

10 Guidelines Maintain order and discipline Emphasize the goal is to achieve Army standards Make AARs positive in nature Avoid--- –Lecturing –Critiquing, criticizing or judging performance –Embarrassing soldiers or leaders –Comparing units 10

11 Formal External OC/Ts Takes more time Complex training aids Scheduled beforehand Conducted when best supported Conducted to gain maximum training benefit Normally for Platoon-level and above 11

12 Informal May be conducted by either the internal Chain of Command or external OC/Ts Takes less time Use simple training aids Conducted when needed Held at training site 12

13 Informal (cont) Uses standard AAR format Limited resources Normally for soldier (leader), crew, squad and platoon-level training Supports higher-level formal AAR Held prior to higher-level formal AAR 13

14 Phases of the AAR Planning Preparation Conduct Follow-up 14

15 Enabling Learning Objective Action : Identify the steps followed during the After Action Review planning phase Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC Standard : Successfully describe the steps followed during the planning phase of the AAR 15

16 Planning Establish objectives for the AAR Select and train qualified OC/Ts Review the training and evaluation plan, Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP), mission training plans (MTPs) and soldier training publications (STPs) Determine when AARs will occur and identify participants 16

17 Plan for stop points during exercise Select potential AAR sites Select/prepare training aids Draft/review AAR plan Planning (cont) 17

18 AAR Plan Observer Element Priority Tasks Who Attends When Held Location Special Requirements 1LT Jones 1st PLT Occupy, prepare and defend a BP All 1 hour after change of mission Behind 2d squad GH LTC Smith will provide closing comments 18

19 Enabling Learning Objective Action : Identify the steps followed during the After Action Review preparation phase Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC Standard : Correctly describe the steps followed during the preparation phase of the AAR 19

20 Preparation Review training objectives, orders, METL and doctrine Identify key events OC/Ts are to observe Observe the training and take notes Collect observations from other OC/Ts Begins once mission starts 20

21 AAR Observation Worksheet Example Training/exercise title: Event: Date/time: Location of observation: Observation (player/trainer action): Discussion (tied to task standard if possible): Recommendations (indicate how the unit could have executed the task(s) better or describe training the unit will need to improve future performances): 21

22 Preparation (cont) Organize observations (Identify key discussion or teaching points) Gather observations from OPFOR representative Recon and prepare the selected AAR site Conduct rehearsals 22

23 Position all players in the AAR Site –Keep sub-unit integrity –Put leaders in the front –OPFOR on the side Brief unit on how the AAR will be conducted SAMPLE AAR SITE SET-UP OPFOR LDR 1SG CDR WATER PT OC/T TO LANE SAND TABLE 1st Plt 2nd Plt 3rd Plt 4th Plt AAR BOARD Map Board 23

24 Discussion Techniques Leading/thought-provoking questions Have unit members describe what happened in their own words Explore alternative courses of action Avoid detailed examination of events not directly related to major training objectives 24

25 Enabling Learning Objective Action : Identify the steps followed during the conduct of the AAR Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC Standard : Correctly identify the steps followed during the conduct of the AAR 25

26 Introduction and AAR rules of engagement (ROE) Review of objectives and intent –Training objectives –Commander’s mission/intent (what was supposed to happen) –OPFOR commander’s mission/intent –Relevant doctrine, tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) Summary of recent events (what happened) Format of the AAR 26

27 Sample AAR ROE This is a learning event, not a critique Everyone should participate Does not grade success or failure No EXROE discussion Be “thick-skinned” No sleeping, eating, dipping or smoking 27

28 Discussion of key issues –Chronological order of events –Battlefield operating systems (Co level) –Key events/themes/issues –Plan, Prep and Execute (technique) Format of the AAR (cont) 28

29 Format of the AAR (cont) Discussion of other issues –Soldier/ leader skills –Tasks to sustain/improve –Fratricide –Others 29

30 Key Leader Assessment PositionSustainImprove CDR 1SG FSO 1st Plt PL 2nd Plt PSG Guide comments to your key issues 30

31 Format of the AAR (cont ) Discussion of force protection/ safety Closing comments 31

32 Enabling Learning Objective Action : Identify the steps followed during the follow up phase of the After Action Review Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC Standard : Correctly identify the steps followed during the follow up phase of the AAR 32

33 Follow-up Identify tasks requiring retraining Fix the problem - retrain Revise SOPs, integrate into future training plans Use to assist in making assessment 33

34 Summary Definition, objective and purpose Participation and key points Types of AARs The four phases of the AAR AAR videotape 34

35 We are all trainers and the AAR is the primary training tool. Good AARs get results. Focus your AAR on the major issues. Modify your technique based upon the situation and adjust the format to accomplish the mission. Get the unit to admit their shortcomings and work together to develop a solution. As the OC/T, you are providing feedback on the unit’s performance as well as teaching the unit how to conduct their own AARs. BOTTOM LINE 35


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