Presentation on theme: "Mother and Child Health: Research Methods G.J.Ebrahim Editor Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Oxford University Press."— Presentation transcript:
Mother and Child Health: Research Methods G.J.Ebrahim Editor Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Oxford University Press.
Types of Studies This set of slides provides a general introduction to different types of studies. In the sets that follow each type of study is further described together with its common variations.
The Fundamentals of a Study Firmly established study objectives or hypotheses. Carefully defined methods of assembling study subjects, avoiding bias in selection, and case definitions. Making valid and reliable observations avoiding biased surveillance, variability among observers, and masking of observers. Handling of incomplete observations, including what steps to take about subjects lost to follow-up, non-responders, or those whose status changes during the study. Selecting appropriate comparison groups, identifying beforehand important factors that may influence the study hypotheses, and controlling for them.
Case Reports Agent acts Time Outcome observed Case Report
Case Series Time Agent actsOutcome observed Case Series
Cross-sectional Studies Time Agent acts Cases Normal Study Population
Case-control Studies Time Agent acts Cases Controls Exposure History Yes No Yes No
Cohort Studies Exposed Not exposed Time Disease Present Absent Present Absent
Clinical Trials New Treatment Comparison treatment Outcome Patients ImprovedNot improved ImprovedN ot improved
Intuition and Logic in Research Dominant Mental Activity Intuition Feeling Judgement Experience Analysis Experiment Control over variance Hi Potential for Misinterpretation Qualitative Research Case Report Case Series Cross-sectional Study Case-control Study Cohort Study Clinical trials Lo Hi