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26/29 June - Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche Unisalento Room R 24 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution.

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Presentation on theme: "26/29 June - Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche Unisalento Room R 24 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution."— Presentation transcript:

1 26/29 June - Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche Unisalento Room R 24 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution

2 Can International Law prevent French stammering legislation on environmental and maritime crimes to apply and to develop ? Dr. Benoît PETIT Associate professor of law, University of Versailles (France) Lawyer

3 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution The “Erika” Shipwreck Case Facts & Proceedings

4 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution The “Erika” Shipwreck Case - Facts & Proceedings French EEZ

5 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution The “Erika” Shipwreck Case - Facts & Proceedings

6 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution The “Erika” Shipwreck Case - Facts & Proceedings SHIPWRECK ACTORS & TRIAL DEFENDANTS Ship Captain : Mr. Karun MATHUR Ship Owner : TEVERE SHIPPING Cie Lim. (Malta) Owned by AGOSTA INVESTMENTS (Liberia) & FINANCIAL SHIPPING CORP. (Liberia) Bearer shares benefit : Mr. Guiseppe SAVARESE Ship Manager :PANSHIP (Italy) Owned by Mr. Antonio POLLARA Certification Cie : SpA RINA (Italy) By delegation for MALTA MARITIME AUTHORITIES Charterer : TOTAL (via SELMONT & TOTAL subsidiaries)

7 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution The “Erika” Shipwreck Case - Facts & Proceedings Time line 1975 : Ship is built 1993 : TEVERE becomes owner 1997, May 31st : Agreement between TEVERE & PANSHIP for Ship managment 1998, May : Ship repaired after 11 deficiency reported 1998, Aug. 15th & Dec. 16th : Certification delivered by SpA RINA 1999, Sept.: SELMONT takes on Charter operations 1999, Nov. Charter agreement between SELMONT & TOTAL TOTAL takes on vetting operations 1999, Nov. 24th : Certification renewed by SpA RINA 1999, Dec. 7th : Departure 1999, Dec. 11th & 12th : Shipwreck

8 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution The “Erika” Shipwreck Case - Facts & Proceedings Tribunal Correctionnel of Paris, Jan. 16, 2008 Every defendant is discharged on the basis of endangering the crew ; Ship captain and Charterers (SELMONT and TOTAL subsidiairies) are discharged of involontary pollution by hydrocarbon ; SpA RINA, Ship owner (TEVERE), Ship manager (PANSHIP) and TOTAL (vetting operations) are sentenced for involontary pollution by hydrocarbon Public prosecutor, defendants and plaintiffs all seek appeal.

9 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution The “Erika” Shipwreck Case - Facts & Proceedings Cour d’appel de Paris, 30 mars 2010 First jurisdiction decision is confirmed, except on it’s legal and conventionnal argumentation

10 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution The “Erika” Shipwreck Case - Facts & Proceedings Conclusions of the Prior-Trial investigations Inquiery reveals : Ship repairs were inadequate given the deficiencies (corrosion) that affected the ship’s body ; SpA RINA delivered the certificates without considering these defaults ; The vetting operations taked on by TOTAL should have lead the Charterer to refuse to charter the ship ; Therefore, if the different ship actors had showed more caution, the shipwreck could have been prevented The shipweck actors are thus sent to Trial for involontary pollution by hydrocarbon & endangering the crew

11 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Summary Beforehand : Reminder of the basic rules that apply French law establishes an autonomous offense 1 st level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL does not apply 2 nd level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL applies, French law complies Supreme Court Public prosecutor’s position : MARPOL applies, French law doesn’t comply

12 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution

13 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution Brussels Convention The Brussels Convention, November 29 th, 1969 Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties France : 1975

14 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution Brussels Convention, 1969 Article 1 may take such measures on the high seas as may be necessary to prevent, mitigate or eliminate grave and imminent danger to their coastline Parties to the present Convention may take such measures on the high seas as may be necessary to prevent, mitigate or eliminate grave and imminent danger to their coastline or related interests from pollution or threat of pollution of the sea by oil, following upon a maritime casualty or acts related to such a casualty, which may reasonably be expected to result in major harmful consequences.

15 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution Brussels Convention Brussels Convention, 1969 Article 2 collision of ships, stranding or other incident of navigation For the purposes of the present Convention: 1. "Maritime casualty" means a collision of ships, stranding or other incident of navigation, or other occurrence on board a ship or external to it resulting in material damage or imminent threat of material damage to a ship or cargo.

16 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution MARPOL Convention (London) The MARPOL Convention (London), November 2, 1973 & Appendix France : October 2 nd, 1983

17 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution MARPOL Convention (London), The MARPOL Convention (London), 1973 In case of an offense to the MARPOL rules : Art. 4, §1 – Flag country’s legislation applies Art. 4, §2 – Other country’s legislation applies if this other country has specific jurisdiction

18 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution MARPOL Convention (London), The MARPOL Convention (London), 1973 Rule 9, Apx I – Hydrocarbon waste dumpings are forbidden (except very specific situation) MARPOL Preamble + Art. 2, §3 : the banning concerns voluntary and non- intentional waste dumpings

19 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution MARPOL Convention (London), The MARPOL Convention (London), 1973 Rule 11, Apx I – Rule 9 does not apply if : 1 – the waste dumping is necessary for the Ship’s crew survival & security 2 – the waste dumping is the result of a damage * and at the condition all reasonable precautions have been taken after the damage or when the waste dumping is revealed * except if the Ship captain or the Ship owner has acted with the intention of causing tort, or in a reckless way while knowing a tort would result

20 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution MARPOL Convention (London), The MARPOL Convention (London), 1973 So MARPOL bans non-intentional hydrocarbon waste dumpings, but makes provision for an exemption cause (a posteriori) when Ship owner and/or Ship captain did not commit a gross misconduct.

21 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution Montego Bay Convention The Montego Bay Convention, December 10 th, 1982 France : 1994

22 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution Montego Bay Convention The Montego Bay Convention, 1982 Creates Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Coastal country has jurisdiction to protect maritime environment (art. 56) IF For foreign ship cruising in EEZ, Coastal country can apply specific legislation to protect maritime environment IF this specific legislation complies with International law rules (art. 221)

23 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution French Penal Code The French Penal Code Art – Art – French criminal law applies beyond home waters when international law allows it

24 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution French law (85-583) of July 5 th, 1983 The French law (85-583) of July 5 th, 1983 Related to suppression of sea pollution by hydrocarbon

25 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution Art. 7 of French law (85-583) of July 5 th, 1983 In EEZ and in home waters, Ship Captain of foreign country will be prosecuted if he does not respect his reporting obligations as they are defined in MARPOL Convention.*

26 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Beforehand : Reminder of basic rules concerning maritime pollution prosecution Art. 8 of French law (85-583) of July 5 th, 1983 Carelessness, negligence & non-observance of legislation rules that have lead to a sea damage (as defined by the Brussels Conv.) are punished in the person of the Ship Captain, or the person in charge of the Ship’s conduct or exploitation on board, if this sea damage has lead to the pollution of home waters, and if these people have provoked the accident or didn’t take the necessary measures to avoid it. Are also punished in the same conditions, the Ship owner, the Ship manager and more generally all people that have a control or leadership power on the Ship*

27 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution How do all these different rules apply to the “Erika” Case ?

28 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Ship Captain, Ship Owner, Charterer & Certification company have been prosecuted by French judicial authorities on the basis of Art. 8 of the 1983 French law

29 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Question 1 : Does French law aim an autonomous offense in comparison to International law ?

30 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Does French law aim an autonomous offense ? Total’s argument developed in front of the Supreme Court : 1983 French law can not apply to the Erika case because it doesn’t precise that it aims accidents caused by foreign ships, nor accidents caused in EEZ Therefore, French legislation doesn’t rule accidents that occurred beyond home waters, and particularly EEZ, when the Ship is a foreign one. It is not an application of the International law possibility for Coastal countries to take specific legislation. Therefore, Flag legislation applies (Malta)

31 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Does French law aim an autonomous offense ? Supreme Court Public Prosecutor rejects the argument and demonstrates that French law aims an autonomous offense. Like Total, he 1 – Notes that French jurisdiction on foreign ships in EEZ is possible only if a specific legislation provides for this case (Montego Bay) ; 2 – Notes that French 1983 law (art. 8) does not refer to MARPOL Convention, at the difference of other articles of the law that do (like art.7) ;

32 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Does French law aim an autonomous offense ? Supreme Court Public Prosecutor also notes that : 1 – if Montego Bay Conv. admits that Coastal Country can draw up specific legislations to protect maritime sea environment, this aim can’t lead to globally rule out the Flag law jurisdiction principle ; 2 – The fact that Malta is, indeed, a Flag of convenience, doesn’t imply automatically that the Ship is dangerous. Therefore, a Coastal Country cannot act by “self-defense” and impose it’s jurisdiction... Or if it technically can, in regard of the Flag Country’s behaviour, this solution can only be lead by Executive authorities, and not Judicial authorities (Cass. Crim., May 5 th, 2009)

33 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Does French law aim an autonomous offense ? Therefore : - There is no way that France can impose it’s jurisdiction on the Flag country’s jurisdiction, if Montego Bay rules are not respected (specific legislation that complies with International law) - French 1983 law doesn’t seem to be a specific legislation in regard of Montego Bay rules.... Except if the way it was written is the result of the Legislator’s negligence, in which case it could be interpreted as so.

34 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Does French law aim an autonomous offense ? But Supreme Court Public Prosecutor also notes that : 1 – 1983 French legislator’s intention was to deliberately not refer to MARPOL Conv. because he considered that International law conditions to prosecute non-intentional sea pollutions were too concilatory with the people in charge 2 – 1983 French law applies to all pollutions that affect home waters, whatever their origins... Which is very different than the MARPOL rules (which aim the waste dumping place)

35 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Does French law aim an autonomous offense ? MARPOL Convention1983 French Law Non intentionnal offense ?YES Offense Hydrocarbon waste dumping (Rule 9) Any home water pollution, whatever the origins Technically, a pollution implies a soiling condition Rationae lociWaste dumping place Whatever place as long as home water is polluted Exemption cause Reasonable precautions after the damage, except intentional offense (Rule 11) NO Who is aimed ?Ship Captain & Ship OwnerAny person who has a control or leadership power on Ship

36 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Does French law aim an autonomous offense ? It is therefore very clear that French 1983 law (art. 8) does not transpose MARPOL rules But it is also very clear that French 1983 law concerns the Erika case because the consequences of the sea damage did pollute the French home waters, whatever the sea damage origins 1983 French law, article 8, is an autonomous offense that applies... Total’s argument is therefore rejected.

37 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Question 2 Is French law conflicting with International law, and thus can not apply to the case ? Can a country establish it’s own criminal offense, more severe than International law ?

38 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution We know that a Coastal country can establish it’s own specific legislation as long as it complies with international law thesis : 1 – Art. 8 complies with International law, but not MARPOL which is not relevant 2 – Art. 8 complies with MARPOL 3 – Art. 8 does not comply with MARPOL which is the only relevant International convention that applies to the case

39 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution 1 st level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL doesn’t apply Art. 8 complies with the Brussels Conv., therefore has an International law basis French law aims pollution resulting of a sea accident Brussels conv. defines sea accident as a cruising incident or any other event that occurs on board or outside the ship, whose consequences are material damages or a menace of material damages Rules 9 and 11 of MARPOL aim Hydrocarbon waste dumpings which are not mentioned by Art. 8 Art. 8 is independent of Art. 7

40 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution 1 st level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL doesn’t apply SC Public prosecutor rejects these arguments : 1 – Brussels Conv. only aims the right for a Coastal country to take urgent necessary measures in case of a ship damage in order to prevent or reduce an imminent danger, so it does not apply to Art. 8 2 – The fact that French legislator doesn’t mention MARPOL in Art.8 does not imply that MARPOL is not relevant

41 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution 1 st level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL doesn’t apply But even if we consider MARPOL isn’t relevant (autonomous offense + no reference), Art. 8 must respect MONTEGO BAY rules : Coastal country has no jurisdiction beyond home waters (except for Ships under it’s flag) except if it’s specific legislation complies with International law (not the case)

42 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution 2 nd level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL applies, French law complies MARPOL’s definition of waste dumping includes those that result of a sea accident defined by the Brussels Conv. So MARPOL applies

43 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution 2 nd level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL applies, French law complies MARPOL articles do not aim anybody in particular concerning the offenses’ aim. Rule 9’s offense only aims the Ship, which has no ability to have rights and duties Rule 11 is an exception of Rule 9. When it aims the Captain and the Owner, it’s only with the intention of limiting the exemption causes. It doesn’t mean that the offense is exclusively aimed towards the Captain and the Owner. + Protocol 1, art. 1, says that when the Captain’s report to the Coastal country to inform it of a possible pollution is not complete or impossible to give, then the Owner, the Charterer or the Manager assume the Captain’s obligations

44 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution 2 nd level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL applies, French law complies But it is true that Art. 8 is different from MARPOL rules concerning the exemption causes. Art. 221 Montego Bay admits Coastal countries specific legislations when they “comply” with International law. It then all depends on how International law is interpreted. Vienna Conv., May 23 rd, 1969 Vienna Conv., May 23 rd, 1969 says an International law is interpreted in the light of its object and goals.... Which are, for MARPOL, the struggle against waste dumpings & intentional pollutions as well as pollution prevention.

45 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution 2 nd level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL applies, French law complies Vienna Convention, art. 31 A treaty shall be interpreted in good faith in accordance with the ordinary meaning to be given to the terms of the treaty in their context and in the light of its object and purpose

46 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution 2 nd level jurisdiction’s position : MARPOL applies, French law complies Finally, Rule 11 does not apply to the case, since no one has taken any measures after the shipwreck, and can therefore not be invoked Conclusion : MARPOL does apply, but French law complies because it complies with MARPOL’s object and goals, and because Rule 11 doesn’t say for sure that the offense only aims Ship captain & owner

47 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Supreme Court Public Prosecutor’s argumentation 1 – Concerning the people responsible of the offense It’s true that MARPOL articles and Rule 9 do not specifically aim Ship captain & owner as the only people responsible of the offense But Rule 11 is very clear that only Ship captain’s & Ship owners conducts can lead to apply or not the exemption cause. Therefore, considering other people are aimed by the offense is an abusive interpretation of the MARPOL rules. Art. 8 is more severe than MARPOL rules.

48 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Supreme Court Public Prosecutor’s argumentation 2 – Does the more severe French legislation comply with MARPOL ? Art. 8 punishes all faults whereas Rule 11 exempts some cases of faulty misconducts Art. 8’s offense is committed in a different place than MARPOL

49 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Supreme Court Public Prosecutor’s argumentation 2 – Does the more severe French legislation comply with MARPOL ? Neither MARPOL nor MONTEGO BAY say that a more severe legislation can be taken by the Coastal country Art. 4 (MARPOL) says the specific national offense, by it’s rigour, must discourage faulty people, and must be of an equal severity whatever the place it has been committed. So for the SC Public Prosecutor, the need of “complying” means not only complying with the object and goals, but being identical to the rules

50 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution LETS RESUME Erika is a foreign ship that shipwrecked in France’s EEZ >> France has no natural jurisdiction on the Ship >> Montego bay aim to preserve maritime environment + problems that have occurred with compliance flags cannot justify that France imposes it’s jurisdiction Therefore, France can only have jurisdiction if it enacts a specific legislation that complies with International law

51 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution LETS RESUME Art. 8 (French law) is an autonomous offense that can maybe apply if it complies with International law Brussels convention is not relevant to say that Art. 8 complies

52 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution LETS RESUME Art. 8 is quite different from MARPOL Rules Aims a pollution offense and not a waste dumping offense Seeks no exemption causes & aims any person that has a control or leadership power on the ship BUT It is not that clear that MARPOL aims only Ship captain & owner So Art. 8 is more severe than MARPOL Rules

53 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution LETS RESUME 1 st possibility : to comply with International law, national legislation must not be more severe.... It has to punish the offense in the exact same conditions than International law 2 nd possibility : to comply with International law, national legislation must respond to the same object and goals.... It can thus be more severe than International law Art. 31, Vienna Convention 1969 (which the SC Public Prosecutor did not take in account)

54 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Issues Strict legalism can lead to environmental laxity, since International law is, by definition, based on the widest consensus possible (less restrictive rules) and relatively static. Therefore, if International law is the floor & ceiling limit of maritime criminal law, & knowing that the MARPOL exemption cause is rather conciliatory with faulty behaviour, what’s the point ?

55 Judicial Training and research on EU crimes against environment and maritime pollution Thank you for your attention


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