Presentation on theme: "“You may think that polymers are so common that they grow on trees... Well, you're right. When they say that polymers are everywhere, they mean it. In."— Presentation transcript:
“You may think that polymers are so common that they grow on trees... Well, you're right. When they say that polymers are everywhere, they mean it. In fact polymers have been in nature from the beginning. All living things - plants, animals, and people - are made of polymers.” http://pslc.ws/macrog/kidsmac/natural.htm
NATURAL – Natural means to be made by nature. POLYMER – Polymers are long chains that are made up of many molecules (monomers). MONOMER POLYMER H H O I’m Molly Cool (of water that is) Therefore, a natural polymer is a polymer that is found in nature. They are in our DNA and RNA, wood, cotton, and shell fish! To sum up, it is easy to say that natural polymers are found in almost everything that is not man-made!
Which are the building group of animals. They are polymers of alpha amino acids. It is found in silk, collagen and keratin. Which includes RNA and DNA. They contain polymer backbones that are based on sugars and are polysaccharides. Which are the most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms. It is found in cellulose, starch, and glycogen.
The simplest of the carbohydrates that are classified as either an aldehyde or a ketone with one or more hydroxyl groups. They are usually found as colourless, water-soluble, crystalline solids.
One sugar molecule (the basic molecular unit of all carbohydrates). A carbon backbone that may range between 3 – 7 carbon atoms. The carbon atoms have a hydrogen and a hydroxyl group attached to them. Chemical Formula: (CH 2 O)n (simple sugars) or C x (H 2 O) y Chemical Structure: H(CHOH) n C=O(CHOH) m H. If n or m is zero, it is an aldehyde and is termed an aldose ; otherwise, it is a ketone and is termed a ketose. aldose ketose Monosaccharides contain either a ketone or aldehyde functional group, and hydroxyl groups on most or all of the non-carbonyl carbon atoms.ketonealdehydefunctional grouphydroxyl aldaldehydeketketone
A sugar containing one ketone group per molecule. A ketone contains a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms. Acetone is the simplest example of a ketone The ketose is attached to the second carbon located on the chain. A sugar containing one aldehyde group per molecule. An aldehyde contains a carbonyl centre bonded to hydrogen and an R group. Formaldehyde is the simplest example of an aldehyde. The aldose is attached to the first carbon on the chain. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Acetone-3D-vdW.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Acetone-3D-balls.png http://0.tqn.com/d/chemistry/1/7/3/l/formaldehyde.jpg
1.Each name ends with the suffix “ose” 2.Classified by the number of carbons (triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose, heptose...) For each carbon chain there is one oxygen for each carbon 3.Classified by the type of carbonyl group: ALDOSE (-CHO) carbonyl on carbon-1 (aldehyde) * use the prefix “aldo” KETOSE (C=O) carbonyl on carbon-2 (ketone) * use the prefic “keto” EXAMPLE: RIBOSE = aldopentose FRUCTOSE = ketohexose C C C C C O H Aldopentose C C=O C C C C Ketohexose
Cyclic hemiacetal forms are the most preferred structural form of a monosaccharide. Cyclic structures are termed as either furanose (five-membered) of pyranose (six- membered). Furanose (Fructose) Pyranose (b-D-glucose) The upper bond to the carbon is called a beta, and the lower bond is called an alpha. http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/carbhyd.htm http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/courses/351/Carey5th/Ch25/ch25-2-3.html When you are naming a cyclic form, you take the prefix of the original monosaccharide and then take the suffix “furanose” or “pyranose”. Determine whether it is alpha, beta or both. The “D” or “L” located in the name represents its configuration family.
DEHYDRATION When a molecule of water is removed from the reactants to join the reactants together. http://www.infolizer.com/?title=dehydration+synthesis+of+glucose
OXIDATION is a process where a substance adds on an oxygen or loses a hydrogen. oxygen GLYCOSIDE FORMATION (reaction as a cyclic hemiacetal) http://www.umd.umich.edu/casl/natsci/chem/decamp/c226/Reactions%20of%20monosaccharides.pdf http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/carbhyd.htm
VARIOUS PHOTOS: PowerPoint Microsoft Clipart Organic Chemistry Joseph M. Hornback http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Pl-Pr/Polymers-Natural.html http://www.chem.fsu.edu/rlight/4053su01/Lectures/chapter07.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monosaccharide http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyranose http://www.biotopics.co.uk/as/glucose2.html http://www.infolizer.com/?title=dehydration+synthesis +of+glucose