Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

End Show Slide 1 of 42 chemistry. End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 42 Carbonyl Compounds Have you heard of benzaldehyde or vanillin?

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 42 chemistry. End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 42 Carbonyl Compounds Have you heard of benzaldehyde or vanillin?"— Presentation transcript:

1 End Show Slide 1 of 42 chemistry

2 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 42 Carbonyl Compounds Have you heard of benzaldehyde or vanillin? It is likely that you have eaten these organic molecules, called aldehydes, in ice cream or cookies. You will read about the properties that are associated with carbonyl compounds, such as aldehydes. 23.3

3 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Slide 3 of 42 Aldehydes and Ketones What is the structure of a carbonyl group found in aldehydes and ketones? 23.3

4 End Show Slide 4 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Aldehydes and Ketones A carbonyl group is a functional group with the general structure C═O. The C═O functional group is present in aldehydes and ketones. 23.3

5 End Show Slide 5 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Aldehydes and Ketones An aldehyde is an organic compound in which the carbon of the carbonyl group is always joined to at least one hydrogen. 23.3

6 End Show Slide 6 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Aldehydes and Ketones A ketone is an organic compound in which the carbon of the carbonyl group is joined to two other carbons. 23.3

7 End Show Slide 7 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Aldehydes and Ketones 23.3

8 End Show Slide 8 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Aldehydes and Ketones 23.3

9 End Show Slide 9 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Aldehydes and Ketones Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones 23.3

10 End Show Slide 10 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Aldehydes and Ketones Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones Many aldehydes and ketones have distinctive odors. Aromatic aldehydes are often used as flavoring agents. Benzaldehyde is known as oil of bitter almond. Cinnamaldehyde is the source of the odor of oil of cinnamon. 23.3

11 End Show Slide 11 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Aldehydes and Ketones Vanillin, an aldehyde, comes from vanilla beans. 23.3

12 End Show Slide 12 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Aldehydes and Ketones A solvent used to remove nail polish is acetone, a ketone. 23.3

13 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Slide 13 of 42 Carboxylic Acids What is the general formula for a carboxylic acid? 23.3

14 End Show Slide 14 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Carboxylic Acids A carboxyl group consists of a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group. A carboxylic acid is a compound with a carboxyl group. 23.3

15 End Show Slide 15 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Carboxylic Acids The general formula for a carboxylic acid is RCOOH. Carboxylic acids are weak because they ionize slightly in solution to give a carboxylate ion and a hydrogen ion. 23.3

16 End Show Slide 16 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids give a variety of foods— spoiled as well as fresh—a distinctive sour taste. 23.3

17 End Show Slide 17 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Carboxylic Acids Low-molar-mass carboxylic acids are volatile liquids with sharp, unpleasant odors. The higher-mass carboxylic acids are nonvolatile, waxy, odorless solids with low melting points. 23.3

18 End Show Slide 18 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Carboxylic Acids Many continuous-chain carboxylic acids were first isolated from fats and are called fatty acids. Stearic acid, an 18-carbon acid obtained from beef fat, is used to make inexpensive wax candles. 23.3

19 End Show Slide 19 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Carboxylic Acids 23.3

20 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Slide 20 of 42 Esters What is the general structure of an ester? 23.3

21 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 21 of 42 Carbonyl Compounds > Esters Esters contain a carbonyl group and an ether link to the carbonyl carbon. The general formula for an ester is RCOOR. 23.3

22 End Show Slide 22 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Esters Esters are derivatives of carboxylic acids in which the —OH of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an —OR from an alcohol. 23.3

23 End Show Slide 23 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Esters Esters may be prepared from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. 23.3

24 End Show Slide 24 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Esters 23.3

25 End Show Slide 25 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Esters 23.3

26 End Show Slide 26 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Esters Ethyl ethanoate is a low-molar-mass ester. 23.3

27 End Show Slide 27 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Esters Esters impart the characteristic aromas and flavors of many flowers and fruits. Marigolds, raspberries, and bananas all contain esters. 23.3

28 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Slide 28 of 42 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Why is dehydrogenation an oxidation reaction? 23.3

29 End Show Slide 29 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Oxidation-Reduction Reactions The loss of hydrogen is a dehydrogenation reaction. Dehydrogenation is an oxidation reaction because the loss of each molecule of hydrogen involves the loss of two electrons from the organic molecule. 23.3

30 End Show Slide 30 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 23.3

31 End Show Slide 31 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 23.3

32 End Show Slide 32 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 23.3

33 End Show Slide 33 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Energy produced by oxidation reactions is used in both living and nonliving systems. 23.3

34 End Show Slide 34 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 23.3

35 End Show Slide 35 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 23.3

36 End Show Slide 36 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 23.3

37 End Show Slide 37 of 42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbonyl Compounds > Oxidation-Reduction Reactions An aldehyde is mixed with Fehling’s reagent (left test tube) and heated. The blue copper(II) ions in Fehling’s reagent are reduced to form Cu 2 O, a red precipitate (right test tube). 23.3

38 End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 38 of 42 Section Quiz -or- Continue to: Launch: Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section 23.3 Section Quiz

39 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 39 of 42 End Show 23.3 Section Quiz 1.Which compound is a ketone? a.CH 3 COOH b.CH 3 CH 2 OH c.CH 3 CHO d.CH 3 COCH 3

40 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 40 of 42 End Show 23.3 Section Quiz. 2.The IUPAC name for the structure CH 3 CH 2 COOH is a.ethanoic acid. b.acetic acid. c.propanoic acid. d.propionic acid.

41 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 41 of 42 End Show 23.3 Section Quiz. 3.The product of the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid is called a.a ketone. b.an ether. c.an ester. d.an aldehyde.

42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 42 of 42 End Show 23.3 Section Quiz. 4.Choose the correct words for the spaces. Dehydrogenation is __________ reaction because losing a molecule of hydrogen involves the _______________ electrons from the organic molecule. a.an oxidation, loss of two b.an oxidation, loss of four c.a reduction, gain of two d.a reduction, gain of four

43 END OF SHOW


Download ppt "End Show Slide 1 of 42 chemistry. End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 42 Carbonyl Compounds Have you heard of benzaldehyde or vanillin?"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google