Energy Research Quick Picks from Brookhaven National Laboratory 1. Electrochemically Enhanced Bioethanol Production 2. Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts 3. Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage 4. Artificial Photosynthesis 5. BNL OIPSR (Office of Intellectual Property and Sponsored Research) October 1, 2008 3
Electrochemically Enhanced Bioethanol Production October 1, 2008 4 Provisional patent application filed April 7, 2008. Bio-Ethanol: Enhancing Production via Electron Removal or BEEPER technology - the goal is to accelerate the production of bio-ethanol by modifying the fermentation step.
Ethanol Production - Domestic Outlook Source: EIA, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/forecasting.html October 1, 2008 5
Reduction in Fossil Fuel Dependence October 1, 2008 6 Source: “From Biomass to Biofuels”, NREL, www.nrel.gov/biomass/pdfs/39436.pdf
The Food v. Fuel Debate October 1, 2008 8 Editorial Responses to April 7, 2008 TIME article, “The Clean Energy Myth”
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Technology for making ethanol already exists but has not been developed to the point that it is economically competitive with gasoline. The cost of E85 is reported to be, in July, 2007, $2.62 per gallon ($3.71 to get energy equivalent of a gallon of gasoline) versus $3.03 for gasoline. It is projected that about 60 billion gallons per year of EtOH will be needed to meet 30 by 30 goal set by Congress (there is also a 20 in 10 initiative) Either now or in the future, the fermentation process can be modulated to accelerate ethanol production. This technology is applicable to any advancement using microbes to produce ethanol and other metabolites. In addition, the electricity generated by the process can be recycled back into the process or the facility thereby further cutting the cost of production. October 1, 2008 9
1. Electrochemically Enhanced Bioethanol Production 2. Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts 3. Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage 4. Artificial Photosynthesis 5. BNL OIPSR (Office of Intellectual Property and Sponsored Research) October 1, 2008 10 Energy Research Quick Picks from Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts October 1, 2008 11 The best fuel cell catalysts on the market use nearly bulk platinum, that peaked around $2000/troy oz. Merely making Pt nanoparticles has not improved the mass catalytic activity of catalyst- bearing electrodes. Using Pt monolayers on ruthenium substrates as anodes, and Pt monolayers on palladium nanoparticles as cathodes, a BNL PI has been able to increase the mass catalytic activity for fuel cells by up to 20 times over Pt/C catalysts. The overall value of the project for the fuel cell market alone is estimated to be $2 to $20 million. Platinum is also used in many other catalytic reactions. Pt Ru Pt Pd
1. Electrochemically Enhanced Bioethanol Production 2. Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts 3. Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage 4. Artificial Photosynthesis 5. BNL OIPSR (Office of Intellectual Property and Sponsored Research) October 1, 2008 12 Energy Research Quick Picks from Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Offers a means for practical room temperature hydrogen desorption from aluminum hydride. Uses activated aluminum hydride (AlH 3 ) to control and efficiently store hydrogen gas for vehicles and other applications at low temperatures including RT and with acceptable gravimetric H-capacity (e.g., around 6 wt.% H). Decomposition of aluminum hydride particles is metallurgically stimulated by mixing in small levels of dopants (e.g., LiH, NaH, LiAlH 4, and others) to react with the aluminum hydride particles. October 1, 2008 13 SEM micrographs of α AlH3 prepared by DOW Chem. Co. showing large cuboids 50-100 microns in diameter. (below) crystal structure of α-AlH3 (R-3c) showing the H atoms in an octahedral coordination around the Al.
Brookhaven National Laboratory Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Further developments: To prepare aluminum hydride. Samples used were an alpha trigonal/rhombohedral version made by Dow Chemical in 1975 from LiAlH 4 and AlCl 3 by a wet (ether solvent) chemical process; To optimize the dopants; and To develop offboard techniques for rehydriding spent Al back to AlH 3. Rehydriding is a term that is being used by BNL researchers to characterize the process of regenerating aluminum hydride from spent Al. October 1, 2008 14
1. Electrochemically Enhanced Bioethanol Production 2. Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts 3. Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage 4. Artificial Photosynthesis 5. BNL OIPSR (Office of Intellectual Property and Sponsored Research) October 1, 2008 15 Energy Research Quick Picks from Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory Artificial Photosynthesis Catalyzing O 2 Production from Water- studying ruthenium complex with bound quinone molecules that can drive the conversion of water into oxygen, protons, and electrons; ruthenium holds water molecules in place to make oxygen while the protons and electrons are transferred among the molecules and the catalyst, providing the charges necessary to continue the photosynthesis process. Building a Bio-inspired Catalytic Cycle for Fuel Production – using a ruthenium-based complex for a functional model this artificial complex has been shown to work similar to NADP+/NADPH coenzyme that cycles back and forth picking up a proton and 2 electrons and depositing them for use in the eventual production of carbohydrates. October 1, 2008 16
Water oxidation by Ru dinuclear complexes and cobalt hydrous oxide Sunlight absorption by BGNSCs and metal complexes CO 2 and proton reduction by photogenerated hydrides (and/or hydrogenase model complexes) Photogeneration of NADPH-model complexes Artificial Photosynthesis Studies at BNL http://photoscience.la.asu.edu October 1, 2008 17
Proposed catalytic pathway for H 2 O oxidation by [Ru2(Q)(btpyan)]4+, the oxidized form of the catalyst. (Listed for each species is the O-O distance and the Ru-C- Ru angle, where the C atom is at the top center of the anthracene moiety. ) First, two water molecules or two hydroxide ions bind to vacant coordination sites to form the “far” singlet dihydroxo species with an O-O distance of 4.527 Å. This species has a barrier comparable to kBT to form the “near” singlet, hydrogen-bonded species of the same composition. This “near” singlet species is likely the species isolated and characterized by Tanaka’s group. Upon geometric distortion of this species along a proton dissociation coordinate, the system likely crosses over to a triplet manifold for the remainder of the catalytic cycle. All of the triplet species shown are considerably more stable than the corresponding singlets. It is likely that all four protons are removed before the catalyst/water moiety complex is externally oxidized. Accompanying proton removal, electron transfer occurs from the bound water moieties to the quinone ligands as indicated. The involvement of the final 4+ O2-bound intermediate is unlikely. October 1, 2008 18 Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 47, No. 6, 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Artificial Photosynthesis
Photoelectrolysis cell with a BGNSC photoanode (red) and a catalyst (purple) at the anode surface. A small bias potential may be required in some cases to produce H 2 at a cathode electrode with a catalyst (pink). Photocatalysis Research in the BNL AP Group http://photoscience.la.asu.edu NADPHFe hydrogenase AP Energy is required to drive reactions of these molecules uphill to generate fuels Solar energy is the most abundant source of energy for such use October 1, 2008 19
1. Electrochemically Enhanced Bioethanol Production 2. Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts 3. Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage 4. Artificial Photosynthesis 5. BNL OIPSR (Office of Intellectual Property and Sponsored Research) October 1, 2008 20 Energy Research Quick Picks from Brookhaven National Laboratory
Technology Transfer Mechanisms Brookhaven National Laboratory What is the Role of Tech Transfer? Technology Licensing for laboratory inventions that demonstrate a commercial potential; involves obtaining patents for those inventions and seeking licensees that demonstrate commercialization capability. Work for Others (WFO) provides a tool for performing research and development at BNL. Collaborative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) provides a means for industry to benefit from the vast scientific and technological capabilities at BNL. Proprietary and Non-Proprietary Research at BNL User Facilities provide experimenters from around the world an opportunity to conduct outstanding science. October 1, 2008 21
Research Facilities at BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials Positron Emission Tomography Facility National Synchrotron Light Source-II STAR detector at RHIC NASA Space Radiation Laboratory Molecular Beam Epitaxy oxide system Transmission Electron Microscopy Facility October 1, 2008 22
October 1, 2008 23 Office of Intellectual Property & Sponsored Research (OIPSR) Staff Maria Pacella Dorene Price Christine Brakel Lori-Anne Neiger Maria Pacella Cyrena Condemi Kimberley Elcess Mike Furey Alison Schwarz Ginny Coccorese
1. Electrochemically Enhanced Bioethanol Production Dorene Price 2. Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts Kimberley Elcess 3. Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Dorene Price 4. Artificial Photosynthesis Dorene Price October 1, 2008 24 Energy Research Quick Picks from Brookhaven National Laboratory
October 1, 2008 25 Sponsored Research Michael Furey – Manager, Research Partnerships email@example.com 631-344-2103 www.bnl.gov/techxfer Thank-you Any Questions??
Technology Transfer Mechanisms How Can BNL Facilities Work for You? Proprietary and Non-Proprietary Research at BNL User Facilities - contract for use by research teams from industry, university or non-profit of a BNL Designated User Facility Collaborative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) - contract for collaborative research projects with industry that may be cost-shared or fully funded by industry Technology Licensing October 1, 2008 27
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY (cont.) WORK FOR OTHERS Non-federal sponsors contract for research performed by BNL research staff which is fully funded by a utility, university, hospital, state or local government, or non-profit and which utilizes unique BNL expertise Other federal agencies research performed by BNL research staff on behalf of and fully funded by another federal agency, such as DARPA, NIH, NASA. Research performed under an inter-agency agreement between DOE and the other federal agency. October 1, 2008 28
User Facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) Tandem Van de Graff (Tandem) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Center for Functional Nanomaterials October 1, 2008 29
CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) Industry partner’s proprietary information is protected “Protected CRADA Information” Results/data generated in the course of the project Protected from public release for up to five years Patent and Data Rights are negotiated Partner gets first option to license “Subject Inventions” Option period is negotiated Data can be withheld from public release October 1, 2008 30
Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) Brookhaven’s costs can be funded by funds from DOE, licensing income, the industry participant, or any combination of these BNL contributions can include: Facilities, instruments, materials, people No funds-out to partner Partner contributions can include: Funds to Brookhaven, facilities, instruments, materials, people Research usually conducted at both BNL and participant’s facilities Exchange of results October 1, 2008 31
TECHNOLOGY LICENSING obtain patent protection on BSA inventions developed at BNL with commercial applications license patents covering BSA developed inventions to industry to foster commercialization licenses can be exclusive, for a specific field of use, or for a specific geographical area potential licensee must present plans for commercialization more than 100 technologies are in BSA’s licensing portfolio; includes molecular biology, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, optics, instrumentation, environmental remediation, and energy production October 1, 2008 32
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