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Slide 1 of 50 Chemistry 19.2. © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 50 Hydrogen Ions and Acidity To test a diagnosis of diabetic coma, a doctor.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 of 50 Chemistry 19.2. © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 50 Hydrogen Ions and Acidity To test a diagnosis of diabetic coma, a doctor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 of 50 Chemistry 19.2

2 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 2 of 50 Hydrogen Ions and Acidity To test a diagnosis of diabetic coma, a doctor orders several tests, including the acidity of the patient’s blood. Results from this test will be expressed in units of pH. You will learn how the pH scale is used to indicate the acidity of a solution and why the pH scale is used. 19.2

3 Slide 3 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Hydrogen Ions from Water The reaction in which water molecules produce ions is called the self-ionization of water. 19.2

4 Slide 4 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Hydrogen Ions from Water In the self-ionization of water, a proton (hydrogen ion) transfers from one water molecule to another water molecule. 19.2

5 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Hydrogen Ions and Acidity > Slide 5 of 50 Ion Product Constant for Water How are [H + ] and [OH - ] related in an aqueous solution? 19.2

6 Slide 6 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Ion Product Constant for Water For aqueous solutions, the product of the hydrogen-ion concentration and the hydroxide-ion concentration equals 1.0  Any aqueous solution in which [H + ] and [OH - ] are equal is described as a neutral solution. 19.2

7 Slide 7 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Ion Product Constant for Water The product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water is called the ion-product constant for water (K w ). 19.2

8 Slide 8 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Ion Product Constant for Water An acidic solution is one in which [H + ] is greater than [OH - ]. 19.2

9 Slide 9 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Ion Product Constant for Water Unrefined hydrochloric acid, commonly called muriatic acid, is used to clean stone buildings and swimming pools. 19.2

10 Slide 10 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Ion Product Constant for Water A basic solution is one in which [H + ] is less than [OH  ]. Basic solutions are also known as alkaline solutions. 19.2

11 Slide 11 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Ion Product Constant for Water Sodium hydroxide, or lye, is commonly used as a drain cleaner. 19.2

12 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 12 of

13 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 13 of

14 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 14 of

15 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 15 of

16 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 16 of 50 Practice Problems for Sample Problem 19.1 Problem Solving Solve Problem 10 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.

17 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Hydrogen Ions and Acidity > Slide 17 of 50 The pH Concept How is the hydrogen-ion concentration used to classify a solution as neutral, acidic, or basic? 19.2

18 Slide 18 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity The pH Concept The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration. 19.2

19 Slide 19 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity The pH Concept Calculating pH 19.2

20 Slide 20 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity The pH Concept A solution in which [H + ] is greater than 1  10 –7 M has a pH less than 7.0 and is acidic. The pH of pure water or a neutral aqueous solution is 7.0. A solution with a pH greater than 7 is basic and has a [H + ] of less than 1  10 –7 M. 19.2

21 Slide 21 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity 19.2 The pH Concept

22 Slide 22 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity The pH Concept 19.2

23 Slide 23 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity The pH Concept Calculating pOH 19.2

24 Slide 24 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity The pH Concept pH and Significant Figures 19.2

25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 25 of

26 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 26 of

27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 27 of

28 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 28 of

29 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 29 of 50 Practice Problems for Sample Problem 19.2 Problem Solving Solve Problem 12 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.

30 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 30 of

31 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 31 of

32 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 32 of

33 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 33 of

34 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 34 of 50 Practice Problems for Sample Problem 19.3 Problem Solving Solve Problem 14 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.

35 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Hydrogen Ions and Acidity > Slide 35 of 50 Measuring pH What is the most important characteristic of an acid-base indicator? 19.2

36 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Hydrogen Ions and Acidity > Slide 36 of 50 Measuring pH An indicator is a valuable tool for measuring pH because its acid form and base form have different colors in solution. 19.2

37 Slide 37 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Measuring pH Phenolphthalein changes from colorless to pink at pH 7–

38 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 38 of

39 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 39 of

40 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 40 of

41 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 41 of

42 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 42 of 50 Practice Problems for Sample Problem 19.4 Problem Solving Solve Problem 15 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.

43 Slide 43 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Measuring pH Acid-Base Indicators 19.2

44 Slide 44 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Measuring pH 19.2

45 Slide 45 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Measuring pH Universal Indicators 19.2

46 Slide 46 of 50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall > Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Measuring pH pH Meters 19.2

47 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 47 of 50 Section Quiz -or- Continue to: Launch: Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section 19.2 Section Quiz

48 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 48 of Section Quiz. 1. If the [OH - ] in a solution is 7.65  M, what is the [H + ] of this solution? a.7.65  M b.1.31  M c.2.12M d.11.88M

49 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 49 of Section Quiz. 2. The [OH - ] for four solutions is given below. Which one of the solution is basic? a.1.0 x M b.1.0 x M c.1.0 x M d.1.0 x M

50 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 50 of What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen- ion concentration of 8.5 x M? a b.8.50 c.5.50 d Section Quiz.

51 END OF SHOW


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