Presentation on theme: "Organic compounds. One carbon atom can make 4 possible covalent bonds. Living molecules are made from molecules that contain carbon. Carbon bonds."— Presentation transcript:
One carbon atom can make 4 possible covalent bonds. Living molecules are made from molecules that contain carbon. Carbon bonds can form long chains that can be unlimited in length. Carbon is the most versatile element.
Groups of organic molecules that contain carbon: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids
the small subunits that ultimately link together to form larger molecules are called monomers. Mono - one When a bunch of monomers join together into a much larger molecule, they form a polymer. Poly- many
‘giant molecules’ Comprised of monomers that like together through polymerization. ‘many small subunits make one large unit’ We consume the macromolecule, but it is later broken down into these smaller monomers to be used in out body.
Carbohydrates are an important source of energy for cells and provide a means of transporting and storing that energy. They are also a structural support.
Carbohydrates = energy for cells. Carbohydrates are made of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), or CHO, in an approximate ratio of 1:2:1. All sugars are carbohydrates. Another word for sugar is saccharide.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen 1:2:1 ratio Main source of energy C 6 H 12 O 6 monomer
Glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 Galactose, C 6 H 12 O 6 Fructose, C 6 H 12 O 6 When 2 monosaccharides join together, they form a disaccharide through dehydration synthesis.
Monomer- monosaccharide “simple sugars” sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructose lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose maltose — product of starch digestion = glucose + glucose
What is the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen in a carbohydrate molecule. Why do we need carbohydrates? What is dehydration synthesis?
Fats, oils, waxes, detergents Insoluble in water Made of mostly carbon and hydrogen
Lipids are hydrophobic – water fearing!!
Lipids are used for long term energy storage. Create structure of the cell membrane. Transmit information Warmth and protection
Glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids Butter, oil, lard Store almost twice as many calories as carbohydrates, more energy!
SaturatedUnsaturated Animal fats (meat, eggs, dairy products) Oils ( olive oil, peanut oil) no double bonds; saturated with hydrogen. Contains double bond. Solid at room temperatureLiquid at room temperature
Contain: nitrogen,(N) carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) Monomer: amino acids Amino group (NH 2 ) on one end and a carboxyl group (COOH) on the other end. What distinguishes amino acids is the R group.
Amino acids are joined together in proteins by peptide bonds. A peptide bond forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the adjacent amino acid.
Each protein has a specific role. Transport Hormonal Storage Form muscle/bone Enzymes Fight disease
Proteins are chains of amino acids folded up into complex arrangements. First level of organization – amino acids in a protein chain held together by peptide bonds. Second level of organization – the chain is twisted or folded. (helix or sheet) Third level- the chains themselves are folded to make a 3D structure. Fourth level- 3D structure of multiple protein subunits.