Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Organic compounds.  One carbon atom can make 4 possible covalent bonds.  Living molecules are made from molecules that contain carbon.  Carbon bonds.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Organic compounds.  One carbon atom can make 4 possible covalent bonds.  Living molecules are made from molecules that contain carbon.  Carbon bonds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic compounds

2  One carbon atom can make 4 possible covalent bonds.  Living molecules are made from molecules that contain carbon.  Carbon bonds can form long chains that can be unlimited in length.  Carbon is the most versatile element.

3  Groups of organic molecules that contain carbon: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids

4  the small subunits that ultimately link together to form larger molecules are called monomers. Mono - one  When a bunch of monomers join together into a much larger molecule, they form a polymer. Poly- many

5  ‘giant molecules’  Comprised of monomers that like together through polymerization.  ‘many small subunits make one large unit’  We consume the macromolecule, but it is later broken down into these smaller monomers to be used in out body.

6  Carbohydrates are an important source of energy for cells and provide a means of transporting and storing that energy.  They are also a structural support.

7  Carbohydrates = energy for cells.  Carbohydrates are made of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), or CHO, in an approximate ratio of 1:2:1.  All sugars are carbohydrates. Another word for sugar is saccharide.

8  Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen  1:2:1 ratio  Main source of energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 monomer

9  Glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6  Galactose, C 6 H 12 O 6  Fructose, C 6 H 12 O 6  When 2 monosaccharides join together, they form a disaccharide through dehydration synthesis.

10  Monomer- monosaccharide “simple sugars”  sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructose  lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose  maltose — product of starch digestion = glucose + glucose

11  What is the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen in a carbohydrate molecule.  Why do we need carbohydrates?  What is dehydration synthesis?

12  Fats, oils, waxes, detergents  Insoluble in water  Made of mostly carbon and hydrogen

13  Lipids are hydrophobic – water fearing!!

14  Lipids are used for long term energy storage.  Create structure of the cell membrane.  Transmit information  Warmth and protection

15  Glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids  Butter, oil, lard  Store almost twice as many calories as carbohydrates, more energy!

16 SaturatedUnsaturated Animal fats (meat, eggs, dairy products) Oils ( olive oil, peanut oil) no double bonds; saturated with hydrogen. Contains double bond. Solid at room temperatureLiquid at room temperature

17  https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature =endscreen&NR=1&v=HgH6C1itI08 https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature =endscreen&NR=1&v=HgH6C1itI08

18  Contain: nitrogen,(N) carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O)  Monomer: amino acids Amino group (NH 2 ) on one end and a carboxyl group (COOH) on the other end. What distinguishes amino acids is the R group.

19

20  Amino acids are joined together in proteins by peptide bonds.  A peptide bond forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the adjacent amino acid.

21  Each protein has a specific role.  Transport Hormonal  Storage Form muscle/bone  Enzymes Fight disease

22  Proteins are chains of amino acids folded up into complex arrangements.  First level of organization – amino acids in a protein chain held together by peptide bonds.  Second level of organization – the chain is twisted or folded. (helix or sheet)  Third level- the chains themselves are folded to make a 3D structure.  Fourth level- 3D structure of multiple protein subunits.

23  https:// outube. com/w atch?v =w- ctkPUU pUc https:// outube. com/w atch?v =w- ctkPUU pUc

24  Contain Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Carbon (C), and Phosphorus (P).  Monomer- nucleotide 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base. Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information.  DNA and RNA

25


Download ppt "Organic compounds.  One carbon atom can make 4 possible covalent bonds.  Living molecules are made from molecules that contain carbon.  Carbon bonds."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google