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Biochemistry and Water Test Review. The Subatomic Particles, Charges and Where They are Found ProtonsElectronsNeutrons Positive +Negative -Neutral In.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry and Water Test Review. The Subatomic Particles, Charges and Where They are Found ProtonsElectronsNeutrons Positive +Negative -Neutral In."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry and Water Test Review

2 The Subatomic Particles, Charges and Where They are Found ProtonsElectronsNeutrons Positive +Negative -Neutral In NucleusAround Nucleus--- Electron Shell/Cloud In Nucleus

3 Why do unstable atoms bond? To fill outer shells so they can become STABLE..

4 Difference between Bonds COVALENT---SHARE electrons--- IONIC—1 atom loses an electron (OXIDATION) 1 atom gains an electron (REDUCTION) Most Likely to form an IONIC bond--- Na or Cl

5 WATER Why is it Polar? Because when it bonds….Oxygen holds electron more so it becomes slightly NEGATIVE Hydrogen becomes slightly POSITIVE But OVERALL the molecule has NO CHARGE

6 WATER Universal Solvent Because of its Polarity/Charges--- It attracts other Polar molecules breaking them apart---Dissolving them No substance can cause WATER to break apart

7 WATER 3 Properties based on Hydrogen Bonds: a.Cohesive---stick to each other b.Adhesive—sticks to other molecules c.Capillary Action---moving through tubes as a liquid

8 Organic Compounds ALL Organic Compounds MUST have Carbon----Hydrogen C-H

9 All About the ENZYMES Organic Compound-----PROTEIN Scientists Consider it---BIOLOGICAL CATALYST Active Site---the place on the ENZYME where the Substrate attaches and the reaction takes place. Substrate– the compound that the enzyme works on to make a new product.

10 All About the ENZYMES When something else than the substrate attaches— It will inhibit the enzyme from working or working properly What happens when the temperature goes up? The enzyme does not work..because temperature changes its shape…shape allows it to work properly

11 Monomers and Polymers Monomers—Also known as a Building Block or a Subunit of an organic molecule/compound 1 unit of an organic molecule Polymers– Many MONOMERS bonded together Form Macromolecules

12 Dehydration Synthesis AKA Condensation Vs. Hydrolysis Dehydration---when 2 monomers bondto create a polymer---water is removed Hydrolysis---when a polymer is broken down into monomers---water is added

13 Soluble vs Insoluble Soluble---dissolves in water because it is Polar(charged) and attracted to water Insoluble—does not dissolve in water because it is NONPOLAR(not charged) and not attracted to water

14 Metabolism AND Homeostasis Metabolism---sum of all chemical processes in the body Homeostasis– an organism’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment Ex pH and Temperature

15 Cell Membrane Molecule made of CH2(lipid) and phosphate? Phospholipid Function: To allow things in and out of cell

16 Organic Molecule Info: Carbohydrates Subunits/Monomers/Building Blocks--- Glucose (monosaccharides) Main Function: SHORT Term energy Soluble or Insoluble---MOST Soluble Examples---Cellulose, Starch

17 Organic Molecule Info: Lipids Subunits/Monomers/Building Blocks--- Fatty acids Main Function: LONG Term energy and Insulation Soluble or Insoluble---Insoluble Examples---Fats, oils

18 Organic Molecule Info: Proteins Subunits/Monomers/Building Blocks--- Amino Acids Main Function: Transport nutrients, support,defense,motion,regulation,metabolism, Soluble or Insoluble---MOST soluble Examples---Collagen, Hemoglobin

19 Organic Molecule Info: Nucleic Acid Subunits/Monomers/Building Blocks--- Nucleotide Main Function: Building Blocks of Heredity Soluble or Insoluble---Soluble Examples---DNA, RNA

20 Know the Following Molecules and Their Structures: WATER PROTEIN

21 Know the Following Molecules and Their Structures: Carbohydrate Lipid

22 Constructive Response General Composition of a Protein Elements: C, H, O, N Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen Building Block/Monomers: Amino Acids

23 Constructive Response Difference Between Protein and Carbs PROTEIN Carbohydrates Elements: C, H, O, NC,H,O Carbon, Hydrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen Oxygen and NitrogenOxygen Building Block/Monomers: Building Blocks/Monomers Amino AcidsGlucose/Monosaccharides

24 Constructive Response Difference Between Protein and Carbs Functions PROTEIN Carbohydrates SupportSHORT term energy TransportStructure MetabolismProtection Regulation Defense Motion


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