Presentation on theme: "Ch. 2 Basic Chemistry Chemistry is important to biology because: Most cells functions involve chemical reactions. Cell functions are regulated. The atoms."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 2 Basic Chemistry Chemistry is important to biology because: Most cells functions involve chemical reactions. Cell functions are regulated. The atoms and molecules of the Earth cycle among the living and nonliving components of the biosphere. The chemical bonds of food molecules contain energy. The complexity and organization of organisms accommodates the need for obtaining, transforming, transporting, releasing, and eliminating the matter and energy used to sustain the organism. As matter and energy flow through different levels of organization of living things- cells, organs, organisms, communities- and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements are recombined in different ways.
A Review of Chemistry Concepts Learned in Physical Science Periodic Table Song Parts of an Atom Song Atoms Bonding Song Chemical Reactions Song
2.1 Composition of Matter Chemistry as it related to biology
A. Matter What is matter?
B. Atomic Structure
The atomic mass of an atom is about equal to the sum of its protons and neutrons All atoms of an element have the same number of protons, the atom's atomic number
Isotopes Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but differ in number of neutrons; e.g., a carbon atom has six protons but may have more or less than usual six neutrons.
Carbon 14 - Break it Down! Carbon- 12 is the most common form of carbon, it has 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 6 neutrons It is called Carbon 12 because that is its weight (6 + 6 ) Carbon 14 has 2 extra neutrons, its weight is 14 (6 + 8 ); it is an isotope of carbon
A carbon with eight rather than six neutrons is unstable; it releases rays and subatomic particles and is a radioactive isotope. Sample Question: A 200 g sample of muskopfonian is left in a container, the half life of muskopfonian is 1 hour. How much of the sample will be left after 4 hours? Answer: 200 x.5 = 100 (hour 1) 100 x.5 = 50 (hour 2) 50 x.5 = 25 (hour 3) 25 x.5 = 12.5 (hour 4)
Quick Activity: The Half Life of Twizzlers
Low levels of radiation such as radioactive iodine or glucose allow researchers to trace the location and activity of the atom in living tissues; therefore these isotopes are called tracers which are used in CAT scans
High levels of radiation can cause cancerous tissues and destroy cells; careful use of radiation in turn can sterilize products and kill cancer cells.
Pick your favorite element from the table. Turn and tell your lab partner what it is, how many protons, electrons and neutrons it has, and what it's atomic weight is.
Elements and Compounds Compounds When two or more different elements react or bond together, they form a compound (e.g., H2O). Electrons possess energy and bonds that exist between atoms in molecules contain energy. Glycine
Carbon has amazing bonding properties, as we will learn in the next chapter on BIOCHEMISTRY
Nonpolar and Polar Covalent Bonds 1. In nonpolar covalent bonds, sharing of electrons is equal. 2. With polar covalent bonds, the sharing of electrons is unequal. a. In water molecule (H2O), sharing of electrons by oxygen and hydrogen is not equal; the oxygen atom with more protons dominates the H2O association. *The oxygen then assumes a small negative charge *
Hydrogen Bonding 1. A hydrogen bond is weak attractive force between slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and slightly negative atom in another or the same molecule. 2. Many hydrogen bonds taken together are relatively strong. 3. Hydrogen bonds between complex molecules of cells help maintain structure and function. Hydrogen bonds create surface tension.
Section 2.2 Electrons and Energy Electrons occupy an orbital at some level near or distant from the nucleus of the atom.
When atoms absorb energy during photosynthesis, electrons are boosted to higher energy levels. The innermost shell of an atom is complete with two electrons; all other shells are complete with eight electrons.
DRAW IT! QUICK!! 1. Draw six protons in the nucleus of the atom. 2. Draw six neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. 3. Draw two electrons in the first energy level and label them with their charge. 4. Draw four electrons in the second energy level and label them with their charge. 5. What element is it!? __________ (the future of the human race depends on it!)
2.3. Water and Solutions A. First Cells Evolved in Water 1. All living things are 70.90% water. 2. Because water is a polar molecule, water molecules are hydrogen bonded to each other. 3. With hydrogen bonding, water is liquid between 0 C and 100 C which is critical for life.
B. Properties of Water 1. The temperature of liquid water rises and falls more slowly than that of most other liquids.. a. Calorie is amount of heat energy required to raise temperature of one gram of water 1o C. b. Because water holds more heat, its temperature falls more slowly than other liquids; this protects organisms from rapid temperature changes and helps them maintain normal temperatures.
2. Water has a high heat of vaporization. a. Hydrogen bonds between water molecules require a large amount of heat to break. b. This property moderates earth's surface temperature; permits living systems to exist here. c. When animals sweat, evaporation of the sweat takes away body heat, thus cooling the animal.
3. Water is universal solvent, facilitates chemical reactions both outside of and within living systems.. a. Water is a universal solvent because it dissolves a great number of solutes. b. Ionized or polar molecules attracted to water are hydrophilic. c. Nonionized and nonpolar molecules that cannot attract water are hydrophobic. Solvents dissolve other substances (solutes) and do not lose their own properties. If we use a simple and easy example, we can get a handle on the idea. Take a glass of warm water, put a teaspoon of table salt in it, and stir it. The salt will dissolve in the water and "disappear" from view. The water is the solvent here, the salt is the solute in this example, and the resulting salt water is a solution that we created. It's that simple.
C. Acids and Bases 1. Covalently bonded water molecules ionize; the atoms dissociate into ions. 2. When water ionizes or dissociates, it releases a small (107 moles/liter) but equal number of H+ and OH ions; thus, its pH is neutral. 3. Water dissociates into hydrogen and hydroxide ions:
4. Acid molecules dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions (H+) ions: HCl ¨ H+ + Cl-. 5. Bases are molecules that take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions. NaOH ¨ Na+ + OH-. See also: Acid & Base ColoringAcid & Base Coloring
6. The pH scale indicates acidity and basicity (alkalinity) of a solution. 1) One mole of water has 107 moles/liter of hydrogen ions; therefore, has neutral pH of 7. 2) Acid is a substance with pH less than 7; base is a substance with pH greater than 7. 3) As logarithmic scale, each lower unit has 10 times the amount of hydrogen ions as next higher pH unit; * Buffers keep pH steady and within normal limits in living organisms..