2Intermolecular Forces In these sections…Types of Intermolecular ForcesDipole – Dipole ForcesHydrogen BondingDipole-Induced Dipole ForcesInduced Dipole – Induced Dipole ForcesRelating Molecular Structure, IMFs, and Properties of Liquids
3When near a cold surface, gas phase water molecules condense to form a liquid. Why does this happen?
4Intermolecular Forces: Summary Compare with covalent bondskJ/molAll due to attraction of oppositecharges on adjacent molecules.TypeOriginRelative StrengthDipole-DipolePartial charges on two polar molecules.2-10 kJ/molHydrogen Bonding (a special case of dipole-dipole force)Partial charges resulting from N-H, O-H, or F-H bonds on adjacent molecules.25-50 kJ/molDipole-Induced DipolePartial charges on one molecule inducing partial charges on a nonpolar moleculeInduced Dipole-Induced DipoleTwo nonpolar molecules inducing momentary partial charges when near each other<5 kJ/mol for small molecules
5Intermolecular Forces vs. Covalent Bonds What happens to liquid water when it boils?What does NOT happen to liquid water when it boils?
6Dipole – Dipole ForcesPartial charges on two polar molecules attract.
7Hydrogen Bonding: Really Strong Dipole – Dipole Forces Occurs when a molecule has one of these bonds:N-HO-HF-HWhy?
8Hydrogen Bonding: Really Strong Dipole – Dipole Forces Occurs when a molecule has one of these bonds:N-HO-HF-HFor which of these compounds ishydrogen bonding expected?
9Hydrogen Bonding: Really Strong Dipole – Dipole Forces Occurs when a molecule has one of these bonds:N-HO-HF-HWhich are stronger:hydrogen bonds or normal covalent bonds?
10Dipole – Induced Dipole Forces Partial charges on one molecule inducingpartial charges on a nonpolar molecule.
11Induced Dipole – Induced Dipole Forces Two nonpolar molecules inducing momentarypartial charges when near each other.These forces are also called:London Dispersion Forces, or just Dispersion Forces.
12Return to: Properties of Liquids Enthalpy of Vaporization: Energy required to vaporize a liquid.Vapor Pressure: The gas pressure of a vapor(a vapor is a gas that comes from a liquid vaporizing.)Boiling Point: Temperature at which vapor pressure reachesexternal atmospheric pressure.Surface Tension: The tendency of a liquid surface to resist change.Viscosity: The resistance of a liquid to flowing.These properties all depend on IMF strength.
13Return to: Properties of Liquids These properties all depend on IMF strength.As IMF Strength Increases:Enthalpy of Vaporization: increasesVapor Pressure: decreasesNormal Boiling Point: increasesSurface Tension: increasesViscosity: kind of increases, but not always
14Different Liquids have Different Properties CH3CH2OHH2O + CH3CH2OHWhich has stronger IMFs?
15IMF Trends: Dispersion Forces These forces arise from electron clouds being “polarized.”Dispersion force strength increaseswith increasing “polarizability.”Polarizability increases with increasingatom or molecular size.
16IMF Trends: Dispersion Forces As molecule size increases, IMF strength increases.
17IMF Trends: Dispersion Forces As molecule size increases, IMF strength increases.
18IMF Trends: Dipole – Dipole Forces Dipole forces are stronger thancorresponding induced dipole forces.But the effect is not that large, unless ...
19IMF Trends: Hydrogen Bonding Compounds with hydrogen bonding have much strongerIMFs than compounds of similar size.
20IMF Trends: Hydrogen Bonding Compounds with hydrogenbonding have much strongerIMFs than compounds ofsimilar size.
21All Compounds Experience Dispersion Forces Even if they are polarThis molecule experiences hydrogen bonding, but its large sizemeans its properties are controlled by its dispersion forces.