2What holds molecules together? Intramolecular Forces – attractive forces within compounds that hold the compound together.Include ionic and covalent bonds.Stronger bonds represent stronger intramolecular forces. Consider the molecules below: N2 > O2 > Cl2.
3In general, Ionic compounds have much stronger attractions than molecular compounds. Ionic compounds consist of large numbers of ions in a repeating lattice structure. The attractions between positive and negative ions give ionic solids higher melting points than most molecular solids.This is why table sugar (sucrose – bottom left) melts at 186°C whereas salt (NaCl – bottom right) melts at 801°C
4What attracts one molecule to another? Intermolecular Forces (IMF) – the attractive forces between neighboring molecules.The further apart the molecules are, the weaker the attraction between the molecules will be (i.e. molecules in a gas are not held together as strongly as molecules in a solid).Types of IMF include Dipole-Dipole Attractions, Hydrogen Bonding, and London Dispersion Forces.
5Dipole-Dipole Attractions Force of attraction between polar molecules.Because polar molecules have permanent positive and negative ends (dipoles), the positive end of one molecule will be attracted to the negative end of any neighboring molecules.
6Hydrogen BondingVery strong force of attraction that forms between the hydrogen atom in a very polar bond and a non-bonding electron pair on a neighboring molecule.Hydrogen Bonding only occurs in molecules that have H—O, H—N, or H—F bonds.
7The hydrogen bonds formed by H2O molecules are particularly strong, giving water many of its unique properties.Water molecules are small and can form up to four hydrogen bonds at any given instant (remember, one H2O molecule has two H atoms and two non-bonding pairs on the O atom, totaling four sites for hydrogen bonds to form).
8London Dispersion Forces Caused by the attraction between temporary dipoles in neighboring molecules.Because the electron cloud is not always evenly distributed, it can become distorted forming temporary positive and negative ends in a molecule (dipoles).All molecules are capable of forming temporary dipoles and exhibiting london dispersion attractions.Larger molecules have larger electron clouds and are more polarizable. As a result, dispersion forces will be stronger in molecules that are larger (or have a higher molecular weight).
9Comparing IMF Strength When you are trying to compare the strength of the intermolecular attractions present in two different compounds, there are four questions you should ask…
10Is one of the compounds ionic? Question #1Is one of the compounds ionic?Ionic compounds have much stronger forces of attraction than any type of IMF found in molecular compounds.How do we know a compound is ionic? Recall that ionic compounds form between a metal and a non-metal whereas covalent compounds only contain non-metals.If neither compound is ionic go on to question #2…
11Does one of the compounds exhibit hydrogen bonding? Question #2Does one of the compounds exhibit hydrogen bonding?Hydrogen bonds are typically stronger than the other types of IMF.What types of compounds form hydrogen bonds? Only those that have H—F, H—O, or H—N bonds.If neither compound forms hydrogen bonds, go on to question #3…
12Does one molecule have a larger Question #3Does one molecule have a largermass than the other?If so, the molecule with the larger mass has the stronger IMF.Recall that larger molecules are more polarizable and exhibit stronger london dispersion attractions than smaller ones.If both compounds have about the same mass, go on to question #4…
13Is one of the molecules polar? Question #4Is one of the molecules polar?Polar molecules form dipole-dipole attractions and will have stronger IMF than similarly sized non-polar molecules.
14Why are intermolecular forces important? Boiling Points and Melting PointsMolecules with stronger intermolecular attractions are held together more tightly, giving them higher melting points and higher boiling points than molecules with weaker IMF.Rates of EvaporationThe weaker the intermolecular attractions are, the more easily a molecule can evaporate to the gas phase.Liquids that have weaker attractions and evaporate easily are said to be volatile.
15Surface TensionA force that pulls adjacent parts of a liquid’s surface together, decreasing the surface area to the smallest size possible.Surface Tension is caused by an imbalance of attractions at the surface of a liquid (shown in the diagram below).Molecules in the interior of a liquid are attracted in all directions by other molecules.Molecules on the surface are only attracted by other molecules that are at or below the surface. This results in a net downward attraction making the molecules pack more closely together.
16Because of it’s strong IMF, water has a high surface tension Because of it’s strong IMF, water has a high surface tension. This causes the surface of water to behave as if it had an “elastic skin” allowing bugs such as the water strider (bottom left) to walk across the surface.Water’s surface tension also causes it to form droplets, as seen on the leaf on the bottom right.
17ViscosityMeasures a liquid’s resistance to flow; a greater viscosity means that a liquid will flow more slowly.Stronger attractive forces usually make a liquid more viscous, although size plays a more important role in determining viscosity.Molecules with more complex structures are more likely to become “entangled” and resist flowing past one another.Viscosity increases with increasing molecular weight.Molasses (shown on the right) has a high viscosity and pours very slowly.
18“Like-Dissolves Like” Substances with similar intermolecular forces tend to be soluble (dissolve) in one another.Polar/ionic substances are the most soluble in other polar/ionic substances. The positive charges in one substance will attract the negative charges in the other, helping the substance dissolve.Non-polar substances are most soluble in other non-polar substances.The cup shown on the right contains a non-polar oil and water. Because of the principle of like-dissolves-like they are not soluble in one another and form two separate layers.
19Some molecules are soluble in both types of solvents because they have polar and non-polar sections. Consider the ethanol molecule shown below; it has a non-polar region (the hydrocarbon chain) and a polar region (the O—H group). As a result, ethanol can dissolve in water as well as non-polar substances.In general, the larger the non-polar region (the hydrocarbon chain) is, the less soluble the compound will be in water.
20This same principle explains the way that vitamins are stored in your body: Vitamins A, D, E, and K are soluble in non-polar fatty acids. As a result these fat-soluble vitamins can be stored by the body for longer periods of time.Vitamins B and C are water soluble because they are polar. As a result, they should be part of a daily diet.
21Force of attraction between molecules of the same substance CohesionAdhesionForce of attraction between molecules of the same substanceForce of attraction between molecules of different substancesWater molecules have strong IMF so they attract each other forming dropletsWater is a polar substance, so it will adhere well to a polar surface
22Capillary ActionThe ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces in opposition to the force of gravity.When a thin tube is placed into a beaker of water, some of the water is drawn up into the tube as shown on the right.This occurs because of the intermolecular attractions between the water and the wall of the container.Polar molecules will adhere to a polar surface allowing capillary action to occur.Polar molecules will not adhere as well to a non-polar surface.