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Chemical bonds vs. intermolecular interactions. metallic bonds covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol ionic bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol polar-covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical bonds vs. intermolecular interactions. metallic bonds covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol ionic bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol polar-covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical bonds vs. intermolecular interactions

2 metallic bonds covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol ionic bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol polar-covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol visible light kJ/mol ion-dipole kJ/mol heavy main group dispersion kJ/mol FH…H hydrogen bonds ~150 kJ/mol OH…H hydrogen bonds ~ 20 kJ/mol NH…H hydrogen bonds ~10 kJ/mol room temperature 2.5 kJ/mol dipole-dipole interactions 1-5 kJ/mol light main group dispersion < 1 kj/mol The three chemical bonds the mix imbetween The three intermolecular interactions

3 metallic bonds covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol ionic bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol polar-covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol visible light kJ/mol ion-dipole kJ/mol heavy main group dispersion kJ/mol FH…H hydrogen bonds ~150 kJ/mol OH…H hydrogen bonds ~ 20 kJ/mol NH…H hydrogen bonds ~10 kJ/mol room temperature 2.5 kJ/mol dipole-dipole interactions 1-5 kJ/mol light main group dispersion < 1 kj/mol The three chemical bonds the mix imbetween The three intermolelcular interactions

4 dispersion interactions

5 the third intermolecular interaction: strong vs. weak dispersion interactions FBr I Cl F boiling point: -188 o C Cl boiling point: -34 o C Br boiling point: 59 o C I boiling point: 184 o C no dipoles and no hydrogen bonds in F 2, Cl 2, Br 2 or I 2.

6 Strong vs. weak dispersion interactions F Br I Cl F b.p o C Cl b.p o C Br b.p. 59 o C I b.p. 184 o C F − FCl − ClBr − Br I − I The four Lewis structures are all similar. No dipoles; No ions; No hydrogen bonds

7 Please rationalize the different boiling points of the noble gases.

8 covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol ionic bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol polar-covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol visible light kJ/mol ion-dipole kJ/mol heavy main group dispersion kJ/mol FH…H hydrogen bonds ~150 kJ/mol OH…H hydrogen bonds ~ 20 kJ/mol NH…H hydrogen bonds ~10 kJ/mol room temperature 2.5 kJ/mol dipole-dipole 1-5 kJ/mol light main group dispersion < 1 kj/mol the one mix imbetween

9 NaCl (solid)Na + (aqueous) + Cl - (aqueous) ion-ion bond ~400 kJ/mol Ion–dipole interaction ~ kJ/mol. ~400 kJ/mol ~200 kJ/mole

10 metallic bonds covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol ionic bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol polar-covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol visible light kJ/mol ion-dipole kJ/mol heavy main group dispersion kJ/mol FH…H hydrogen bonds ~150 kJ/mol OH…H hydrogen bonds ~ 20 kJ/mol NH…H hydrogen bonds ~10 kJ/mol room temperature 2.5 kJ/mol dipole-dipole interactions 1-5 kJ/mol light main group dispersion < 1 kj/mol The three chemical bonds the mix imbetween The three intermolecular interactions

11 the three chemical bonds, the three intermolecular interactions and the one mix imbetween ~400 kJ/mole ~400 kJ/mole F boiling point: -188 o C I I boiling point: 184 o C ~200 kJ/mole

12 metal bonds covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol ionic bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol polar-covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol visible light kJ/mol ion-dipole kJ/mol heavy main group dispersion kJ/mol FH…H hydrogen bonds ~150 kJ/mol OH…H hydrogen bonds ~ 20 kJ/mol NH…H hydrogen bonds ~10 kJ/mol room temperature 2.5 kJ/mol dipole-dipole kJ/mol light main group dispersion < 1 kj/mol The three chemical bonds the mix imbetween The three intermolecular interactions

13 ion-ion covalent bond heavy main group dispersion bond dipole moments ion- dipole F-H…F O-H…O N-H..N light main group dispersion Qatar Connecticut corresponds to room temperature

14 ion-ion covalent bond heavy main group dispersion ion-dipole, F-H…F O-H…O N-H..N light main group dispersion bond dipole moments bonds vs. intermolecular interactions

15 covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol ionic bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol polar-covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol metal bonds visible light kJ/mol ion-dipole kJ/mol heavy main group dispersion kJ/mol FH…H hydrogen bonds ~150 kJ/mol OH…H hydrogen bonds ~ 20 kJ/mol NH…H hydrogen bonds ~10 kJ/mol room temperature 2.5 kJ/mol dipole-dipole interactions 1-5 kJ/mol light main group dispersion< 1 kj/mol

16 H 3 C-SiH 3 Na + … Cl - Mg 2+ … O 2 - F-H ….OH 2 H-C ≅ N …. N ≅ C-H H 2 Te … TeH 2 What are each of the types of interactions/bonds below? Mg 2+ … OH 2 -

17 What interaction holds together the following pairs of molecules? What is roughly the energy of interaction in kJ/mole? a) two NF 3 molecules b) two BiF 3 molecules c) two F 2 molecules d) two HF molecules e) an H 2 O molecule and an HF molecule f) two CH 4 molecules

18 covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol ionic bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol polar-covalent bonds ~ 400 kJ/mol metallic bonds visible light kJ/mol ion-dipole kJ/mol heavy main group polarization kJ/mol FH…H hydrogen bonds ~150 kJ/mol OH…H hydrogen bonds ~ 20 kJ/mol NH…H hydrogen bonds ~10 kJ/mol room temperature 2.5 kJ/mol dipole-dipole (< 2 D,  1 st -2 nd row) kJ/mol light main group polarization< 1 kj/mol

19 Are X and Y 1 st and 2 nd row elements? Do heavy main group interactions exist? Do F-H…F bonds exist? Do O-H…O bonds exist? Do N-H…N bonds exist? covalent bond heavy main group dispersion F-H…F O-H…ON-H…N yes Calculate  Is  < 0.5 Debye? Is  > 1 Debye? light main group polarization dipole-dipole interaction yes no

20 What interaction holds together the following pairs of molecules? What is roughly the energy of interaction in kJ/mole? a) two NF 3 molecules b) two BiF 3 molecules c) two F 2 molecules d) two HF molecules e) an H 2 O molecule and an HF molecule f) two CH 4 molecules

21 For now compare boiling points for molecules with roughly the same molecular mass. Why do the boiling points occur in the order in which they do? Where would formic acid, HCO 2 H with molecular weight 46 g/mol appear on this boiling point chart?

22 How would CH 3 SeSeCH 3 and I 2 approach one another?

23 How would RSeSeR and I 2 approach one another?

24 Salad dressing is composed of oil and vinegar (that is hydrocarbons, CH 3 (CH 2 ) n CH 3, water, and acetic acid, CH 3 COOH. Why do oil and vinegar not mix?

25 A typical soap compound is sodium stearate. Why is soap good at removing the oil from the skin? sodium stearate

26 A typical soap compound is sodium stearate. Why is soap good at removing the oil from the skin? sodium stearate rule: like adheres to like.

27 The larger the molecule, the greater number of similar intermolecular interactions the molecule can have. two additional factors which control intermolecular interactions (1) size

28 The boiling point depends upon the number of atoms on the molecule’s surface available for intermolecular interactions. and (2) shape.

29 determining molecular shape: ionic bonds vs. covalent bonds

30 Determine molecular shape of: a) NF 3 b) MgO c) CH 3 COCH 3 d) TiO 2

31 Determine molecular shape of: NF 3 MgO CH 3 COCH 3 TiO 2

32 Mooser-Pearson

33 What can you deduce about the molecular shape of the following ions/compounds? a)CaS b) Si c) SiF 6 2- d) NaI 3 e) HC(CH 3 ) 3

34 H 3 C-SiH 3 Na + … Cl - Mg 2+ … O 2 - F-H ….OH 2 H-C ≅ N …. N ≅ C-H H 2 Te … TeH 2 What are each of the types of interactions/bonds below? Mg 2+ … OH 2 - review slie 1

35 What interaction holds together the following pairs of molecules? What is roughly the energy of interaction in kJ/mole? a) two NF 3 molecules b) two BiF 3 molecules c) two F 2 molecules d) two HF molecules e) an H 2 O molecule and an HF molecule f) two CH 4 molecules review slie 2

36 What can you deduce about the molecular shape of the following ions/compounds? a)CaS b) Si c) SiF 6 2- d) NaI 3 e) HC(CH 3 ) 3 review slie 3

37 Two proportionality questions a) If a series of chemically similar molecules (made from the same combination of elements) are all shaped like spheres, what is the proportionality relation between molecular mass and boiling point? b) If a series of chemically similar molecules (made from the same combination of elements) are all shaped like chains, with almost every bond on the surface of the molecule, what is the proportionality relation between molecular mass and boiling point? homework


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