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Water, Life, Civilization: Why Water?. Water: H 2 O.

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Presentation on theme: "Water, Life, Civilization: Why Water?. Water: H 2 O."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water, Life, Civilization: Why Water?

2 Water: H 2 O

3

4 H H H H O S Water Hydrogen Sulfide Water and Similar Compounds H2SH2S H2OH2O

5 Hydrogen Sulfide: H 2 S Water: H 2 O

6 Boiling Point and Freezing Point F.P B.P liquid range Water (H 2 O) 0 o C 100 o C 100 o C Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S) -84 o C -60 o C 24 o C Hydrogen Selenide (H 2 Se) -64 o C -42 o C 22 o C Hydrogen Telluride (H 2 Te) -49 o C 2 o C 47 o C Water is the only substance that exists as a gas, solid, and liquid at ambient earth temperatures Solid Gas

7 H2OH2O Two hydrogen atoms One Oxygen atom What makes water so unusual?

8 Hydrogen: 1 electron (-), 1 proton (+) Oxygen: 8 electrons (-), 8 protons (+) In water, the hydrogens shares their one electron with oxygen, which shares one of its electrons with each hydrogen. This sharing of electrons forms the bond between hydrogen and oxygen atoms to make the water molecule.

9 Nucleus 1 Proton (+) 1 Electron (-) Hydrogen H

10 Oxygen O 8 electrons e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- Outer shell 8 protons The outer shell of electrons determines reactivity

11 Oxygen O e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- Outer Shell e-e- Atoms prefer 8 electrons in the outer shell e-e- e-e-

12 How does oxygen exist in the atmosphere? O2O2

13 O e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- O e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- O2O2 Atoms prefer 8 electrons in the outer shell Covalent Bonding

14 Water O e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- H H H e-e- Bonding of hydrogen to oxygen in a water molecule is called Covalent Bonding H H e-e-

15 O H H Water Molecule O Shared electrons Bond of shared electrons H H Shared electrons

16 Water is Unbalanced by Oxygen H H O

17 Oxygen is “Electron Greedy” O H e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- Oxygen’s pull on electrons is about 50% stronger than hydrogen Oxygen attracts electrons very strongly

18 O H H Electrons are negatively charged, protons positive Oxygen is “electron greedy” Oxygen pulls electrons toward itself and away from hydrogen e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- This pulling of electrons toward itself is called “electronegativity” P+

19 O H e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- Abundant electrons (negative charge) Two protons (+ charge) H P+

20 More negative charges ( - ) Fewer negative charges

21 + + _ Red = lots of e - Blue = few e - Polarity + Electric Dipole

22 Consequences of Polarity

23 N S Magnets and Polarity Magnetic Dipole

24 N S N S Polarity Opposite Poles Attract

25 N S N S Polarity Same Poles Repel

26 Polarity N S N S

27 Slight negative charge Slight positive charge Polarity Electric Dipole - +

28 - + Orientation Bond - + Opposite charges attract each other (hydrogen bond)

29 Hydrogen Bonding in Water Hydrogen Bonding Gives Water Unusual Stability

30 Hydrogen and oxygen share electrons to form water The water molecule is electrically unbalanced Oxygen is electron greedy; it is highly electronegative Oxygen draws electrons toward itself and away from hydrogen This creates a slight negative charge near oxygen There is also a slight positive charge near hydrogen The result is a molecule that is polar (+ and – poles) This polarity accounts for electrostatic bonding between water molecules Bonding between water molecules gives water unusual stability. Summary

31 Extensive Hydrogen Bonding Allows Water to Exist as a Liquid at Normal Temperatures and across a wide range in temperatures Effect on Properties High Boiling and Freezing Points Other Unusual Thermal Properties Unusual Density


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