# 20_01fig_PChem.jpg Hydrogen Atom M m r Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy R C.

## Presentation on theme: "20_01fig_PChem.jpg Hydrogen Atom M m r Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy R C."— Presentation transcript:

20_01fig_PChem.jpg Hydrogen Atom M m r Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy R C

20_01fig_PChem.jpg Hydrogen Atom will be an eigenfunction of Separable

20_01fig_PChem.jpg Hydrogen Atom Recall Bohr Radius

20_01fig_PChem.jpg Hydrogen Atom Assume Let’s try It is a ground state as it has no nodes

20_01fig_PChem.jpg Hydrogen Atom The ground state as it has no nodes n=1, and since l =0 and m = 0, the wavefunction will have no angular dependence

20_01fig_PChem.jpg Hydrogen Atom In general: Laguerre Polynomials 1S- 0 nodes 2S- 1 node 3S-2 nodes

Energies of the Hydrogen Atom In general: Hartrees kJ/mol

Wave functions of the Hydrogen Atom In general: Z=1, n = 1, l = 0, and m = 0:

Z=1, n = 2, l = 0, and m = 0: Wave functions of the Hydrogen Atom

Hydrogen Atom Z=1, n = 2, l = 1 m = 0:m = +1/-1: + _ - + - + +- - + + - - +

20_06fig_PChem.jpg For radial distribution functions we integrate over all angles only Prob. density as a function of r. Radial Distribution Functions

20_08fig_PChem.jpg X Y Z Probability Distributions

20_12fig_PChem.jpg Atomic Units Set: Hartrees a.u. Much simpler forms.

Atoms Potential Energy Kinetic Energy C meme meme =r 12 M

Helium Atom C meme meme =r 12 M Cannot be separated!!! Hydrogen like 1 e’ Hamiltonian i.e. r 12 cannot be expressed as a function of just r 1 or just r 2 What kind of approximations can be made?

Ground State Energy of Helium Atom EoEo E1E1 E2E2 I 1 = 24.587 ev EoEo E1E1 E2E2 I 2 = 54.416 ev Ionization Energy of He E Free E o =- 24.587 - 54.416 ev =- 79.003 ev =- 2.9033 Hartrees Perturbation Theory

Ground State Energy of Helium Atom H Not even close. Off by 1.1 H, or 3000 kJ/mol Therefore e’-e’ correlation, V ee, is very significant

Ground State Energy of Helium Atom

Closer but still far off!!! Perturbation is too large for PT to be accurate, much higher corrections would be required

Variational Method The wavefunction can be optimized to the system to make it more suitable Consider a trail wavefunction and Is the true wavefunction, where: Then The exact energy is a lower bound is a complete set Assume the trial function can be expressed in terms of the exact functions We need to show that

Variational Method Since Variational Energy E0E0 E var (  ) min

Variational Method For He Atom Let’s optimize the value of Z, since the presence of a second electrons shields the nucleus, effectively lowering its charge.

Variational Method For He Atom

Similarly Recall from PT

Variational Method For He Atom Much closer to -2.9033 H (  E= 0.055 H =  kJ/mol error)

Variational Method For He Atom Optimized wavefunction

Variational Method For He Atom Optimized wavefunction Other Trail Functions (  E= 0.027 H =  kJ/mol error) Optimizes both nuclear charges simultaneously

Variational Method For He Atom Other Trail Functions (  E= 0.011 H =  kJ/mol error) Z’, b are optimized. Accounts for dependence on r 12. In M.O. calculations the wavefunction used are designed to give the most accurate energies for the least computational effort required. The more accurate the energy the more parameters that must be optimized the more demanding the calculation.

Variational Method For He Atom In M.O. calculations the wavefunction used are designed to give the most accurate energies for the least computational effort required. The more accurate the energy the more parameters that must be optimized the more demanding the calculation. -2.862879 H -2.862871 H -2.84885 H Experimental -79.003 ev -2.9003 H

Download ppt "20_01fig_PChem.jpg Hydrogen Atom M m r Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy R C."

Similar presentations