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ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN URBAN TRANSPORT (PART 2) Eddy Versonnen KdG University College Antwerp.

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Presentation on theme: "ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN URBAN TRANSPORT (PART 2) Eddy Versonnen KdG University College Antwerp."— Presentation transcript:

1 ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN URBAN TRANSPORT (PART 2) Eddy Versonnen KdG University College Antwerp

2 AIR QUALITY GREENHOUSE EFFECT - THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT - GREENHOUSE GASES - DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICAL CARS - USE OF ALTERNATIVE FOSSIL FUELS - USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS - WIND ENERGY AND SOLAR ENERGY - HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

3 Experiments with bio-energy USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS:

4 KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Basic principle: Make fuels out of bio-mass Mostly bio-mass from plants Plants store solar-energy by photosynthesis under the physical form of carbon compounds In theory renewable fuels are CO 2 neutral: the CO 2 caused by the combustion of bio-fuels has been taken out of the air by the plants while they were growing In reality some energy is needed for the production of renewable fuels out of bio-mass, but the use of it surely makes a CO 2 reduction possible (watch out: fertilizing leads to N 2 O!) USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS:

5 KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: Renewable fuels (wood) are the first fuels used by men. Fossil fuels were formed out of bio-mass a few million years ago. Different kinds of Renewable Fuels: –Biodiesel –Pure Plant Oil (PPO) –Bio-methanol –Bio-ethanol –Biogas –Bio-methane –Bio-Hydrogen –...

6 KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: ADVANTAGES: Renewable A lot of CO 2 reduction Liquid bio-fuels are easy to handle Some bio-fuels can be used in conventional combusting engines with small adaptations ‘Revival’ of the European agriculture

7 KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: DISADVANTAGES: Different studies preconceive that there is not enough cultivated land available to produce enough renewable fuels. An ethical question: use the available cultivated land for the production of food or for the production of energy Not necessary sustainable and renewable energy: for example cutting down the rain forest None or hardly any impact on the poisonous emission components

8 USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: - Bio-Diesel (Plant Oils) * FAME: Fatty Acid Methyl Ester  Obtained from Rape Seed, Soybean,.. * World Production: tons ( in EUROP) * EU Commission: Blends of:  2010: > 5,75% Bio-Diesel  2020: > 10% Bio-Diesel with Fossil Diesel * Using Bio-Diesel substantially reduces Emissions of  Unburned Hydrocarbons (CH)  Carbon Monoxide (CO)  Sulphate  Particular Matter * Emissions of NO X increases KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

9 USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: - Biodiesel (Plant Oils) * Can be used in Conventional Diesel Engines * Bio-Diesel Blends higher than B20 can cause problems with Natural Rubber Components  Damage to Seals and Hoses of the Fuel System KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

10 USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: - Biodiesel: PPO (Pure Plant Oils) * PPO tends to solidify at low temperature * Vehicle Modification to heat the fuel * 5% to 8% less Power * If PPO gets mixed with the lubricating Oil  It reacts with the Oil  This creates “Sludge”  Change Oil more often KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

11 USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: - Bio-Ethanol * Obtained from Sugar or Starch in Crops and other Agriculture Produce  Grain Starches  Sugar beats  Maïs * 30% CO 2 Reduction Conventional Bio-Ethanol Cellulosic Bio-Ethanol * Derived from any Cellulose or other Renewable Bio-mass  Forrestary Waste  Municipal Waste * 80% CO 2 Reduction KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

12 USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: - Bio-Ethanol * World Production: tons  Mostly in Brazil and USA  tons in Europe * EU Commission: Blends of  2010: > 5,75% Bio-Ethanol  2020: > 10% Bio-Ethanol with Gasoline KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

13 USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: - Bio-Ethanol * All Gasoline Vehicles can operate on gasoline/ethanol blends up to 10% Ethanol  % CO 2 Reduction (Compared with Gasoline) * E5: 5% Bio-Ethanol in Gasoline (EU) * E10: 10% Bio-Ethanol in Gasoline (USA) * E25: 25% Bio-Ethanol in Gasoline (Brazil) KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

14 USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS: - Bio-Ethanol FFV (Flexible Fuel Vehicle) * Capable of operating on  85% Bio-Ethanol and 15%Gasoline  Or any Blend in between * E85: 85% Bio-Ethanol in Gasoline (USA, Sweden) * With 113 Octane Rating: E85  Is the highest Performance Fuel on the Market  Keeps High-Compression Engines running smoothly KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

15 AIR QUALITY GREENHOUSE EFFECT - THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT - GREENHOUSE GASES - DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICAL CARS - USE OF ALTERNATIVE FOSSIL FUELS - USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS - WIND ENERGY AND SOLAR ENERGY - HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

16 WIND ENERGY AND SOLAR ENERGY: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

17 WIND ENERGY AND SOLAR ENERGY: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Advantages: No CO 2 emission No emissions Inexhaustible No geographical concentration Disadvantages No constant production: no solar energy when the sun is not shining,... Not directly usable for transport applications Hard to store

18 WIND ENERGY AND SOLAR ENERGY: - Battery - Electric * Energy Storage in the Chemical Energy of the Batteries. * Zero Emission: no Emissions while being driven. * Disadvantages:  Costs  Speed  Driving Range KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

19 WIND ENERGY AND SOLAR ENERGY: - Battery - Electric * Lead - Acid Batteries: Reduced Capacity if discharged beyond 75% on regular basis. * Better Choice but more expensive are:  NiMH Batteries  Lithium Batteries KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

20 WIND ENERGY AND SOLAR ENERGY: - Battery - Electric * New developments:  ELLICA (Japan)  Lithium Batteries  0 to 100 km/h in 4 s  Maximum Speed: 400 km/h  Autonomy: 320 km KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

21 WIND ENERGY AND SOLAR ENERGY: - Solar Cars * Electrical Vehicle powered by Solar Panels * Not a practical Form of Transportation KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

22 AIR QUALITY GREENHOUSE EFFECT - THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT - GREENHOUSE GASES - DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICAL CARS - USE OF ALTERNATIVE FOSSIL FUELS - USE OF RENEWABLE FUELS - WIND ENERGY AND SOLAR ENERGY - HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

23 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Well to Wheel Efficiency (vehicle km per ha)

24 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Hydrogen - The lightest chemical element on earth - Most existing chemical element in the universe -It almost never exists as a free element on earth, but most of the time in a chemical bond * Water (H 2 O): chemical bond with oxygen * Fossil fuels: chemical bond with carbon (C) (‘hydrocarbons’, for instance CNG: ~CH 4 )

25 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Production methods: -‘Steam reforming’ of CNG -In general from any fossil fuel (for example coal) -Microbial from waste etc. -B y using Electricity for the Electrolyses of Water (2H 2 O  2H 2 +O 2 ) This Electricity can be produced by: * Wind Energy * Solar Energy * Nuclear Energy Hydrogen: a new fuel? - City Gas = coal – gas - Up to 60% Hydrogen

26 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen H 2 : most energy per kg

27 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen - Internal Combustion Engines * Combustion with oxygen from the ambient air 2H 2 +O 2  2H 2 O + heat - Fuel Cells * Electro-Chemical reaction with oxygen from the ambient air 2H 2 +O 2  2H 2 O + e - Zero Emission: - No emission while being driven Two different Applications:

28 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: * Hydrogen is an Energy Carrier, not an Energy Source (like a Battery) * Hydrogen can be stored more easy than Electricity KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

29 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Hydrogen as an energy buffer

30 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Hydrogen as an Energy Buffer Hydrogen can be used to store energy which is provided by door fluctuating sustainable sources as: –Wind Energy –Solar Energy –Hydroelectric Energy Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier Manageable way to store electricity on board of a vehicle –Vehicles running on hydrogen –Hydrogen as an alternative Energy Carrier for road transport

31 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: - Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines * Slightly Modified Version of the Traditional Gasoline Internal Combustion Engine KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

32 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Hydrogen: Advantages

33 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen European Commission EUR EN – Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells – A vision of our future Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells Vision of our future by the European Commission

34 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Hydrogen: Challenges Storage: H 2 is a very light gas: 14 times lighter than air 1 kg of Hydrogen contains as much energy as 3.6 litres of gasoline At ambient pressure and temperature: m³ of Hydrogen contains as much energy as 1 litre of gasoline (a tank with 50 litres of gasoline contains as much energy as 165 m³ of Hydrogen)

35 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: Hydrogen Storage * Compressed Gas  bar * Special Tanks reinforced with carbon fibres * 9 litres of compressed Hydrogen (700 bar) is equivalent to 1 litre of gasoline KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

36 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: Hydrogen Storage LH 2 * Liquid Gas  -253°C * A super isolated Tank protects the Liquid Hydrogen from heat * After 3 days a critical pressure is reached * 4 litres of Liquid Hydrogen is equivalent to 1 litre of gasoline KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

37 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen * In solid state, adsorbed in metal hydrides * In the future: Storage in Carbon Nanotubes This will have important repercussions concerning the weight and the volume of the Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen: Storage

38 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Hydrogen: Challenges * Production: Big investments in sustainable energy are necessary to replace a small fraction of the worldwide oil consumption by Hydrogen * Transport: Same challenges as for Hydrogen storage Advantage: the existing network to transport natural gas can be used for the transportation of Hydrogen. (with small adaptations) * The cost-price must be reduced: –Production cost –Storage (expensive tanks) –Internal Combustion Engines –Fuel Cells

39 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen As with any other energy carrier: safety risk Characteristics: * Wide flammability: mixtures between 4 and 75% Hydrogen and air are inflammable (gasoline in air is inflammable between 1 and 7.6%) * Low ignition energy * Much lighter than air * Very diffuse: spreads out very fast * C olourless flame * Few radiant heat Hydrogen: Safety

40 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Safety: Hydrogen versus Gasoline * Left: Hydrogen powered vehicle After 3 seconds After 1 minutes After 1min30 * Right: Gasoline powered vehicle

41 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Research at KdG University College Internal Combustion Engines running on Hydrogen HCNG – bus running on a mixture of 20% Hydrogen and 80% CNG, stored under pressure Opel Combo running on Hydrogen *VW Caddy demonstration vehicle running on Hydrogen Future plans concerning Hydrogen Developing a specialised motor management system Maritime Internal Combustion Engine 6.2l V8 running on Hydrogen Fork-lift truck running on Hydrogen Adaptation of an Internal Combustion Engine to run on Methanol

42 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: HCNG - Engines * Hydrogen can be used in different blends with CNG in in Internal Combustion Engines. * This is an essential step to the 15% HCNG Hydrogen  27% CO 2 based Reduction Transportation of the Future KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen

43 HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY CARRIER: KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen Potential of Internal Combustion Engines running on Hydrogen More powerful than Internal Combustion Engines running on gasoline Higher efficiency than Diesel engines The most stringent emission standards achievable, without complicated after treatment of the exhaust gasses Flex-fuel is possible Reduced costs Well known technology Adaptation of existing Internal Combustion Engines for Hydrogen

44 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION KdG University College - Drive Systems/Hydrogen - Eddy Versonnen


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