Presentation on theme: "Energy Carriers Electricity and Hydrogen. Energy Carriers Energy carriers move energy in a usable form from one place to another. Electricity Most well-known."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Carriers Electricity and Hydrogen
Energy Carriers Energy carriers move energy in a usable form from one place to another. Electricity Most well-known energy carrier Hydrogen Not yet widely used, but has great potential for the future
Where Does Electricity Come From? Magnets –Electromagnetism is magnetism created by a current of electricity –A magnetic field can move electrons Batteries –Produce moving electrons through a chemical reaction
Electricity from Turbines Power plants use huge turbine generators to make electricity Fuels to spin turbines include –Wind –Burning coal, oil, or natural gas to make steam –Split uranium atoms can heat water into steam –Power of rushing water from a dam
Electricity from Batteries A battery has a + terminal and a – terminal. Electrons collect on the negative terminal. Connect a load, like a light or motor, with wires to the battery. A chemical reaction in the battery forces the electrons to flow from the battery into the wire. off on
Is Electricity Exhaustible or Inexhaustible? Neither; electricity is a secondary source of energy. Electricity is produced by burning coal, oil, or natural gas – all exhaustible resources. Electricity is also produced with hydro, wind, and solar power – all inexhaustible resources.
Transporting Electricity Power plant generates electricity Transformer steps up voltage for transmission Transmission line carries electricity long distances. Neighborhood transformer steps down voltage Distribution line carries electricity to house Transformer on pole steps down voltage before entering house
The Future of Electricity Electricity cannot easily be stored. It must be generated and delivered at the precise moment it is needed. Electricity travels down whatever paths are made available, but cannot be directed to a certain location. Electricity can be made from inexhaustible and renewable energy sources. Engineering researchers are searching for ways to efficiently store electricity and deliver it when and where it is needed.
Another Option – Hydrogen Hydrogen is the most abundant gas in the universe, but it does not exist naturally on Earth. How is hydrogen made? –Steam reforming separates hydrogen atoms from carbon atoms in methane (CH4) Advantage – least expensive Disadvantage – methane is a fossil fuel, so greenhouse gases are emitted –Electrolysis splits hydrogen from water Advantage – no emissions Disadvantage – very expensive
Hydrogen Uses of Hydrogen –Industry refining metals and processing food –NASA energy fuel Hydrogen batteries power electrical systems; the only by-product is pure water, which the crew drinks –Fuel Cells Emergency power for hospitals Longer power for laptops and cell phones Military Vehicles
Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen is everywhere. It is the most abundant element in the universe. Hydrogen can be made from renewable resources. Hydrogen fuel cells produce no emissions. Hydrogen is efficient, emits little pollution, and can be used for transportation, heating, and power generation.
Future of Hydrogen Great potential as an environmentally clean energy fuel Great potential to reduce our reliance on imported energy sources BUT... Facilities to make, store, and move hydrogen must be built Fuel cells must become more affordable Consumers need technology and education to safely use hydrogen
Image Resources Microsoft, Inc. (2009). Clip art. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from National Energy Education Development Project (NEED). (2009). Retrieved April 10, 2009, from Minnesota Power. (2009). Retrieved April 10, 2009, from